What Are The Natural Resources Of China?

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What Are The Natural Resources Of China?

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10 Countries With The Most Natural Resources

The city is one of the four coldest capital cities in the world with the others being Ottawa, Moscow, and Astana. Some of the natural resources in Mongolia include arable land, forests, water, and minerals among others. Agriculture has been playing a small but critical role in the economy of Mongolia. By it accounted for Agriculture remains an important industry in the economy because it supports most of the industries in the country such as timber, foodstuff, and animal product such as hides and skins particularly for domestic consumption and export market as well. Some of the factors which have hindered the development of agriculture are the high altitude in the country, low precipitation, fluctuation of temperatures, and long winters.

Some of the crops cultivated in Mongolia include wheat, corn, potatoes, and barley. By , the country had approximately 15 million hectares of forest cover which was equivalent to 9. The stocks of timber at the time were estimated to be approximately 46 billion cubic feet. The forests in Mongolia were utilized to extract timber and were a hunting ground for the fur-bearing animals. According to the Mongolian government, the forest sector in contributed about one-sixth to the country's gross national product GNP. Upton , forest resources were managed by the Forestry and Hunting Economy, which was a department in the Ministry of Forestry and Woodworking. In December , the department was integrated into the newly-created Ministry of Environmental Protection, and the woodworking section was integrated into the new Ministry of Light Industry.

The government's move to create a new ministry of environmental protection to manage the forest resources indicates the government's concern over the indiscriminate destruction of forest and the degradation of the environment. Between and , fire alone destroyed approximately 1 million hectares of forest, besides the 20, hectares of trees which were felled every year. The shrink in forest cover in Mongolia affected the water levels in several tributaries of rivers such as Orkhon and Selenge, and seriously affected soil conservation and created a severe water shortage in the city of Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has several rivers and lakes which provide water resources used in the country.

The Orkhon River is the longest in the country stretching for miles long. According to the government of Mongolia, as of , there were 1, rivers with permanent water run-off, rivers with temporary runoff water, dried springs and rivers, lakes and ponds, 1, streams and springs,and 45 cold and hot spas and springs, which were all found in the Orkhon River Basin. Mining in Mongolia is one of the crucial sectors of the economy, and some of the important minerals in the country include gold, copper, and coal among others. Figure 3. Among the nations that benefited from the investments in West Africa.

From the distribution, there exists a notable Chinese foothold on mineral rights. The sites are firmly planted in parts of the Northern area, Western and Central and Eastern African zones of the map with the rights to drill oil clustered in the places on the map identified in dark red with more prominence in the west and north as well as other countries in South West Africa.

Figure 5. The map of Opinion on China Across Africa Other dimensions from the emerging spatial patterns point to places where China maintains both oil and mineral rights in blue color. This is manifested with slight presence in lower side of West Africa followed by far greater concentration in the South West and South East Africa Figure 7. Said that, this may not have been possible without the vast presence in large stock of minerals dispersed across various regions. Being a continent endowed with some of the most strategic natural resources from bauxite to phosphate represented in pink to light yellow colors. The diamond corridor in light blue parts of the map starts from the two locations in lower west African zone along the Gulf of Guinea coupled with extensions deep into Central and South west Africa together with platinum sources light gray in the North and South Africa as well.

Of great spatial importance are the gold producing areas in both North west and North Africa, the East and South East African zone known for its copper deposits. Added to that are the areas endowed with large bauxite, iron and uranium and phosphate deposits along the West and Northern region of the continent Figure 8. Given the capacity of China in securing multiple rights across Africa with many sources and large deposits of minerals spread all over the nations.

Much of the natural resource base in the continent ranked high in the global top 10 classification run through sub-Saharan side of Africa from Mauritania in the West to Botswana and South Africa in the South with the latter nations having more than one resource in the ranking. With 7 nations identified in blue across the continent listed amongst among top 10 producers of a major resource, 3 others Guinea, Zimbabwe, and Botswana in yellow spots of the map, maintained higher spatial rankings in two key resources Figure 9. Figure 7. Major Mineral Resources of Africa Figure 9. Natural Resource Potential and Ranking On the ecological side of things, in terms of renewable resources like forestry.

The highlights of principal exporters in shows Gabon at This seems different when compared to the rest of over half a dozen nations in the continent where export activities in single digits seems concentrated in several central, western, and south African countries Figure In the following period , when Congo Brazzaville emerged as the largest forest exporter with Notwithstanding the scope of forest exporters, the frequency of illegal rosewood export to China from a handful of West African nations rose significantly from Gambia to Nigeria since Figure This comes amidst widespread Interpol concerns and mounting alarms over exploitations across the forest belt of West Africa Figure Figure Figure African Sawnwood Exporter to China Figure Alarm Over Widespread Rosewood Exploitation 3.

The pace of those activities across commodity sectors and markets within regions of the continent transcends a host of policy, economic and physical-environmental factors. These forces are assessed in detail in the following paragraphs. Most of these amounts were in the non-oil producing but mineral rich Southern Africa nations of Zambia and South Africa. Those figures exceeded the amounts devoted to the other group of nations and bigger than the rest including Angola, Niger, Sierra Leone, and Cameroon Table 6. The trade volume of the era coincides with the earlier investment patterns in the early s. On the imports, Angola, South Africa, and Sudan held the top positions as the principal importers of Chinese goods estimated at 2.

Table 6. Trade between China and Africa in With these kinds of assets usually found in delicate environments and nations run under feeble and undemocratic political structures. Being members of the nonaligned movement, both China and Africa speedily increased their ties in the domain of political economy in the onset the century. Since such policy demands heavy ventures in renewable and nonrenewable resources. In September , the Exim Bank entered deals involving over three dozen African nations with ventures under its operation. Such rise in asset in African mine fields on the part of China, would not have happened without the large deposits of mineral ores in the continent Figure Figure Sino-African Partnerships and Local Measures From some of the growing concerns, there have been moves to limit collaboration gaps between key players in Africa and China.

While this effort emerged out of the ongoing problems, it stems from a preference by groups like practitioners in governance in 10 African and Asian countries working to coalesce over common causes a decade ago. Since its inception, the platform has brought together forest governance players from China and eight African countries. To tackle major concerns like the African rosewood pillage. Discussion The perception of the African continent in the past as resource endowed continent at the disposal of European colonizers in search of raw materials to spur global capital never seems to go away. The current activities of China in the continent under the guise of building and funding infrastructure in exchange for natural resources access even though it is not an exception, has pushed those interests onto the arena of scrutiny in the west.

This stems from the one-sided leverage in the transactions. Yet, in the absence of vast reserves of mineral resources, there would have been no way to imagine the inflow of Chinese cash in the past two decades amidst current issues. Being the largest recipient in Chinese investment in the mining sector in a decade, Africa overtook the previous number one in the globe, Australia. Such familiarity appears fully entrenched in Chinese investment in the areas of energy, mining, and infrastructure across various nations. Accordingly, some of the biggest recipients embody the copper and gold and diamond belt in the Southern Africa region states of Zambia, South Africa, and Angola, as well as the Democratic Republic of Congo under related ventures in East, Central Africa, and West Africa.

But the sequence of disasters emanating from some of these deals remains visible. Undertaking key energy and mining projects on terrains adjacent to protected areas in national parks without local consents in defiance to community concerns in Ghana, Gabon and Guinea are common. Recent images of accumulated impacts from beach sand mining activities involving a Chinese firm in Southern Mozambique shows the obliteration of a coastal town subjected to erosion hazards exposure in a fragile terrain.

The heavy debt concentration in resource rich nations like Angola, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and others calls into question whether the accrued ventures serve the interest of needy citizens of these nations or are they mortgaging their future? These patterns depict also points in space in West Africa that are vulnerable to illicit rose wood exploitation destined to China.

Conclusions This enquiry analysed the ongoing scramble for natural resources in the African continent by Chinese operators together with the production levels in various regions with valuable insights specified in the following order. Considering the attributes of Africa as frontier of nature spread across mega diversity zones endowed with vast precious possessions like gold, diamonds, oil, and timber etc. The variety of rare natural assets in the continent attractive to consumers are specifically found in individual nations and regions from East to West African zones.

While such versatility exemplifies the capacities of the continent. Given the presence of uranium in Niger, Namibia, and South Africa in the central and lower zone of Africa. The sheer capacity of mining activities in these areas are crucial for speculative trading in strategic minerals within the orbit of global capital. Compiling info on vital assets at the center of competition among global economic powers amidst Chinese scramble, is laudable in natural resource planning where managers are regularly kept informed on the sustainability of commodity holdings slated for investment under speculative portfolios.

Worthy of note in , are 12 nations bustling with mining activities in a network of 20 sites under Chinese firms from West to South Africa through which the ores ended at markets in China. Having gleaned the scope of Chinese investment in Africa, the capacity of this study in tracing the trajectory and concentration of these deals in a way not imagined before stands out given the need for equity and clarity. Plenty chance exists for African nations and stakeholders in China to carefully gauge loopholes in ventures to ensure public faith, protection of natural resources and citizens welfare in the continent. The scope of large-scale impacts of ecological, physical, and economic nature from Chinese scramble have been fully manifested in the continent.

In , in west Africa, the demands for illegal rosewoods escalated to the extent that 6 nations from Gambia to Nigeria saw unprecedented level of deforestation prompted by pressures from Chinese dealers. Consistent with these liabilities are the damages inflicted on coastal community landscapes by Chinese sand miners in Northern Mozambique. Others are the impacts tied to gold mining as shown by water pollution and land degradation in Ghana in and the risks in hydro projects from Gabon to Zambia.

Surely, the jumbo loans owed to China over these projects by African nations triggers ecosystem liabilities. The nations can then draw from the annotations as templates for good practices when assessing the interactions between nature and economy in impact analysis. Clearly stated, the enquiry was firmly on schedule in capturing the host of physical, environmental, and socio-economic forces at the center of the scramble. With the fiscal dilemma faced by Africa limiting the capacity of the nations to leverage much of deals from China. Additionally, the applications of mix scale methodology as analytical tool did stand out. Applying the model made up of descriptive statistics and GIS mapping as analytical devices provided a novel way to assessing continental and regional natural resources potential.

The model was quite efficient in defining the study site and detecting the trends, along with the compilation of data on the elements and variables from mineral production, changes, to forest exports. This technique remains very vital in meeting the needs of scholars interested in geo-spatial analysis of natural resources management. Besides, the geographical visualization of the trends via GIS analysis indicates concentration of precious natural resource potentials across Africa together at places with exports to China.

Subsequently, GIS mapping as a planning tool highlighted the dispersion of Chinese mineral rights, spatial trajectory of investments and locations of illegal rosewood exploitation across space. The capability of GIS in pinpointing these anomalies raises the gravity of the concerns in the affected regions and its proficiency. The managers and planners will face the urgent task in the years ahead of responding to various questions rooted in sustainable use, access, production, impacts, rare minerals, natural resource exports, and the interactions between economy and ecology.

How will it affect future access? Which factors will shape future deals between African nations and China in natural resource supply? How will local communities manage the degradation inflicted on their ecosystem? How will multilateral agencies and civil societies in China and Africa contain challenges from resource extraction? Building on these questions, provides plenty of opportunities for scholarship and practice to affirm the basis of equity, transparency, local participation, and environmental sustainability given the affinity towards infrastructure for natural resource deals common in Africa.

Appendix A Acronym. References [1] Lawrieon, Willilams Gold. Center for International Forestry Research. Bogor: Indonesia. Brookings Institute, DC: Washington. A Reflection. African and Asian Studies, vol. China's Growing Influence In Africa. American Thinker. Third World Quarterly, vol. Sierra Stream Technologies. Chinese imperialism has come to Africa. The National Interest. Mutual Gain. Bridges Africa. Global Sentinel. DC: Washington The Washington Post. Bogor: Indonesia Rand Corporation. National Security Research Division. Santa Monica: California. Quartz Africa.

Japan External Trade Organization. International Institute For Environment and Development. International Journal of Business and Management. Sub Saharan Africa. DC: Washington. China File Center on U. Is China Really Helping Africa. Forbes Africa. The European Journal of Development Research. International Rivers. Working Papers in African Studies. Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. China Perspectives 1. World Resources Institute. Jackson, MS. Genesis Media Africa News. Online Available: www. International Journal of Energy Engineering, 7 1 , 1. Energy and Power, 8 1 , Assessing the ecological effects of mining in West Africa: The case of Nigeria. Africa: Continent.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago, IL. Advances in Life Sciences, 8 1 , Base Metals Battery Metals Energy. Nikkei Asian Review. The Borgen Project. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Public Health Research, 7 1 , The Heritage Foundation China's Oil Rush in Africa — Nigeria. Alexanders Gas and Oil Connections. All rights reserved. Table 2. Table 4. African Exports To China in Breakdown by Nation and Sector of Chinese Investments in Top 5 African Log Exporters to China, volume. Top 10 African Sawn wood Exporters to China, volume. Figure 4. Figure 6. The map of Opinion on China Across Africa. Figure 9. Natural Resource Potential and Ranking. African Forest Product Export to China African Forest Product Exporters to China African Sawnwood Exporter to China Illegal Rosewood Export To China Alarm Over Widespread Rosewood Exploitation.

Top ten countries in Africa where China invested the most between and Lawrieon, Willilams Gold. Hubert, Thomas. Dollar, David. Gandolfo, Ariel. Wan Chan, Mary Madeleine Edel. Lumumba-Kasongo, T Langan, M Frederick, Stakelbeck. Campbell, H Freemantle, Simon. Bradley A. Wu, Yabin March. Nantulya, Paul August Mark, Esposito. Parks, Bradley. Weng, X. Hanauer, Larry. Dahir, Abdi Latif April. Institute of Developing Economies. Myers, James. Adisu, Kinfu. US GAO. China File Center June. Kartik, Jayaram.

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