Value Based Politics Is The Need Of The Hour Essay
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Unto this Last: Four Essays on the First Principles of Political Economy by John RUSKIN
It would prove that the change in the cost of production is by no means due to the proportion of demand and supply, but rather regulates this proportion" C. We have seen that changes in value if the requirements and purchasing power of the population are unchanged bring about changes in the normal volume of demand. Let us now see if there is also an inverse relation here: if a long-range change in demand brings about a change in the value of the product, when the production technique remains unchanged.
We are referring to long-range steady changes in demand, and not of temporary changes which only influence market-price. Such long-range changes for example the increase of demand for a given product which are independent of changes in the value of products, can take place either because of an increase of purchasing power of the population, or because of increased requirements for a given product.
The intensity of needs can increase because of social or natural causes for example, long-range changes in climactic conditions may create a larger demand for winter clothing. We will treat this question in greater detail below. For now we will accept as given that the schedule of demand for cloth changed, for example, because of increased requirements for winter clothing. Changes in this schedule are expressed by the fact that now a larger number of buyers agree to pay a higher price for cloth, namely that a larger number of buyers and a larger demand correspond to each price of cloth.
The schedule takes on the following form:. The change in demand shown in Table 2 directly increased the market-price of cloth to about 3 roubles for one arshin, since there were only , arshins of cloth on the market. According to our schedule, this was the quantity sought by buyers at the price of 3 roubles. All producers sell their commodities, not for 2 roubles 75 kopeks as earlier, but for 3 roubles. Since the production technique did not change by our assumption , producers received a superprofit of 25 kopeks per arshin.
This brings about an expansion of production and, perhaps, even a transfer of capital from other spheres through expansion of credits which banks give to the cloth industry. Production will expand until it reaches the point when the equilibrium between the cloth industry and other branches of production is reestablished. This takes place when the cloth industry increases its production from , to , arshins which will be sold for the previous price of 2 roubles 75 kopeks. This price corresponds to the state of technique and the market-value. The increase or decrease of demand cannot cause a rise or fall in the value of the product if the technical conditions of production do not change, but it may cause an increase or decrease of production in one branch.
However, the value of the product is determined exclusively by the level of development of the productive forces and by the technique of production. Consequently, demand does not influence the magnitude of value; rather value, combined with demand which is partly determined by value, determines the volume of production in a given branch, i. If we recognize the influence of changes in demand on the volume of production, on its expansion and contraction, do we contradict the basic concept of Marx's economic theory that the development of the economy is determined by the conditions of production, by the composition and level of development of the productive forces?
Not at all. If changes in the demand for a given commodity influence the volume of its production, these changes in demand are in turn brought about by the following causes: 1 changes in the value of a given commodity, for example its cheapening as a result of the development of productive forces in a given productive branch; 2 changes in the purchasing power or the income of different social groups; this means that demand is determined by the income of the different social classes C. At first glance it seems that in the last case we make production dependent on consumption. However, we must ask what causes changes in the urgency of needs for a given commodity. We assume that if the price of iron plows and the purchasing power of the population remain the same and the need for plows is increased by the substitution of iron plows for wooden plows in agriculture, the increasing need brings about a temporary increase in the market price of plows above their value, and as a result increases the production of plows.
The increased need or demand brings about an expansion of production. However, this increase of demand was brought about by the development of productive forces, not in the given productive branch in the production of plows but in other branches in agriculture. Let us take another example, which is related to consumer goods. Successful anti-alcoholic propaganda decreases the demand for alcoholic beverages; their price temporarily falls below value, and as a result the production of distilleries decreases. We have purposely chosen an example where the reduction of production is brought about by social causes of an ideological and not an economic character. It is obvious that the successes of anti-alcoholic propaganda were brought about by the economic, social, cultural and moral level of different social groups, a level which in turn changes as a result of a complex series of social conditions which surround it.
These social conditions can be explained, in the last analysis, by the development of the productive activities of society. Finally, we can move from the economic and social conditions which change demand to natural phenomena which may also influence the volume of demand in some cases. Sharp and long-range changes in climactic conditions could strengthen or weaken the need for winter clothes and bring about an expansion or contraction of cloth production. Here there is no need to mention that changes of demand brought about by purely natural causes and independent of social causes are rare.
But even such cases do not contradict the view of the primacy of production over consumption. This view should not be understood in the sense that production is performed automatically, in some kind of vacuum, outside of a society of living people with their various needs which are based on biological requirements food, protection from cold, etc. But the objects with which man satisfies his needs and the manner of satisfying these needs are determined by the development of production, and they, in turn, modify the character of the given needs and may even create new needs. In just the same way, changes in climactic conditions bring about needs for given goods, for cloth, namely for cloth of a determined quality and manufacture, i.
The quantitative increase of demand for cloth is different for the different social classes, and depends on their incomes. If in a given period of production, a given level of needs for cloth a need based on biological requirements is a fact given in advance or a prerequisite of production, then such a state of needs for cloth is in turn the result of previous social development. The character and change of a requirement for a given product, even if basically a biological requirement, is determined by the development of productive forces which may take place in the given sphere of production or in other spheres; which may take place in the present or in an earlier historical period.
Marx does not deny the influence of consumption on production nor the interactions between them Ibid. But his aim is to find social regularity in the changes of needs, a regularity which in the last analysis can be explained in terms of the regularity of the development of productive forces. We have reached the conclusion that the volume of demand for a given product is determined by the value of the product, and changes when the value changes if the needs and productive power of the population are given. The development of productive forces in a given branch changes the value of a product and thus the volume of social demand for the product. As can be seen in demand schedule No. The volume of demand equals the number of units of the product which are sought at the given price.
The multiplication of the value per unit of product which is determined by the technical conditions of production times the number of units which will be sold at the given value, expresses the social need which is able to pay for the given product. The "definite quantity of social output in the various lines of production" Ibid. This usual, normal volume of production is determined by "whether the labor is therefore proportionately distributed among the different spheres in keeping with these social needs, which are quantitatively circumscribed" C.
Thus a given magnitude of value per unit of a commodity determines the number of commodities which find buyers, and the product of these two numbers value times quantity expresses the volume of social need, by which Marx always understood social need which is able to pay C. If the value of one arshin is 2 roubles 75 kopeks, the number of arshins of cloth which are sought on the market equals , If one rouble represents a value created by one hour of labor, then , hours of average social labor are spent in the production of cloth, given a proportional distribution of labor among the particular branches of production.
This amount is not determined in advance by anyone in the capitalist society; no one checks it, and no one is concerned with maintaining it. It is established only as a result of market competition, in a process which is constantly interrupted by deviations and breakdowns, a process in which "chance and caprice have full play" C. This figure expresses only the average level or the stable center around which the actual volumes of demand and supply fluctuate. The stability of this amount of social need , is explained exclusively by the fact that it represents a combination or multiplication of two figures, one of which 2 roubles 75 kopeks is the value per unit of commodity, which is determined by the productive techniques and represents a stable center around which market prices fluctuate.
The other figure, , arshins, depends on the first. The volume of social demand and social production in a given branch fluctuates around the figure , precisely because market-prices fluctuate around the value of 2 roubles 75 kopeks. The stability of a given volume of social need is the result of the stability of a given magnitude of value as the center of fluctuations of market prices.
Advocates of the "economic" interpretation of socially-necessary labor have placed the entire process on its head, taking its final result, the figure of , roubles, the value of the entire mass of commodities of a given branch, as the starting-point of their analysis. They say: given a particular level of development of productive forces, society can spend , hours of labor on cloth production. These hours of labor create a value of , roubles. The value of the commodities of the given branch must therefore be equal to , roubles; it can neither be larger nor smaller. This definitely fixed quantity determines the value of a particular unit of a commodity: this figure is equal to the quotient which results from dividing , by the number of produced units.
If , units of cloth are produced, then the value of one arshin is equal to 2 roubles 75 kopeks; if production increases to , arshins, then the value falls to 2 roubles 50 kopeks; however, if production falls to , arshins, then the value rises to 3 roubles. Each of these combinations 2 r. The value of a unit of product can change 2 r. The general value of all products , roubles has a constant and stable character. The general amount of labor which is needed in a given sphere of production given a proportional distribution of labor , hours of labor also has a stable and constant character. In given conditions, this constant magnitude can be combined in different ways with two factors: the value per unit of commodity and the number of manufactured goods 2 r.
In this way, the value of the commodity is not determined by the amount of labor necessary for the production of a unit of commodity, but by the total amount of labor allocated to the given sphere of production  divided by the number of manufactured goods. This summary of the argument of advocates of the so-called "economic" version of socially-necessary labor is, in our view, inadequate for the following reasons:. Such analysis would show that the indicated quantity of labor is the result or the product of the value per unit times the quantity of products demanded on the market at a given price. Value is not determined by the quantity of labor in the given sphere, but rather that quantity presupposes value as a magnitude which depends on the production technique.
Instead, this interpretation derives the stable character of the value of the total mass of products of a given sphere from the multiplication of two different factors value per unit and quantity. This means that it concludes that the magnitude of value per unit of product 2 roubles 75 kopeks, 2 roubles 50 kopeks, 3 roubles is unstable and changing. Thus it completely denies the significance of the value per unit of product as the center of gravity of the price fluctuations, and as the basic regulator of the capitalist economy.
However, the other combinations can only be temporary, transitional combinations of disequilibrium. The economic interpretation confuses the state of equilibrium with a state of disturbed equilibrium, value with price. Two aspects of the economic interpretation must be distinguished: first, this interpretation tries to ascertain certain facts, and secondly, it tries to explain these facts theoretically. It asserts that every change in the volume of production if technique does not change brings about an inversely proportional change in the market price of the given product. Due to this inverse proportionality in the changes of both quantities, the product of the multiplication of these two quantities is an unchanged, constant quantity.
Thus, if the production of cloth decreases from , to , arshins, i. The multiplication of the number of commodities by the price per unit in both cases equals , Going on to explain this, the economic interpretation ascertains that the quantity of labor allocated in a given sphere of production , hours of labor is a constant magnitude and determines the sum of values and the market prices of all products of the given sphere. Since this magnitude is constant, the change in the number of goods produced in the given sphere causes inversely proportional changes of value and of the market price per unit of product.
The quantity of labor spent in the given sphere of production regulates the value as well as the price per unit of product. Even if the economic interpretation correctly ascertained the fact that changes in the quantity of products are inversely proportional to changes in the price per unit of product, its theoretical explanation would still be false. The increase of the price of one arshin of cloth from 2 r. This way, the quantity of labor allocated to a given sphere of production would not be the regulator of the value per unit of product, but would regulate only the market price. The market price of the product at any moment would equal the indicated quantity of labor divided by the number of manufactured goods.
This is the way certain spokesmen of the "technical" interpretation represent the problem; they recognize the fact of inverse proportionality between the change in quantity and the market price of a product, but they reject the explanation given by the economic interpretation. In this context, a particularly sharp difference can be observed between subsistence goods and luxury goods, According to some calculations, the doubling of the supply of bread lowers its price four or five times. Why should the price rise from the normal price or value of 2 r. Is it not possible that in cloth manufacturing the price of 3 r.
Where, in capitalist society, is the mechanism which makes the market price of cloth invariably equal to , roubles? In capitalist society, the laws of economic phenomena have similar effects as "the law of gravity" which "asserts itself when a house falls about our ears" C. The theory which we are discussing transforms a tendency or a law which regulates events into an empirical fact: the sum of market prices, not only in equilibrium conditions, i. The assumption of a "pre-established harmony" is not only disproved, but also does not correspond to the general methodological bases of Marx's theory of the capitalist economy. The objections we have listed force us to throw out the thesis of the inverse proportionality between changes in the quantity and the market price of products, namely the thesis of the empirical stability of the sum of market prices of the products of a given sphere.
Marx's statements in this context must be understood, in our view, not in the sense of an exact inverse proportionality, but in the sense of an inverse direction between changes in the quantity and market price of products. Every increase of production beyond its normal volume brings about a fall in price below value and a decrease of production causes a rise in price. Both of these factors the quantity of products and their market prices change in inverse directions, even though not with inverse proportionality. Because of this, the quantity of labor which is allocated to a given sphere does not only play the role of a center of equilibrium, an average level of fluctuation towards which the sum of market prices tends, but represents to some extent a mathematical average of the sums of market prices which change daily.
But this character of a mathematical average in no way means that the two quantities completely coincide, and in addition does not have a particular theoretical significance. In Marx's work we generally find a more cautious formulation of the inverse changes in the quantity of products and their market prices C. We feel all the more justified in interpreting Marx in this sense because in his work we sometimes find a direct negation of the inverse proportionality between changes in the quantity of products and their prices.
Marx noted that in the case of a poor crop, "the total price of the diminished supply of grain is greater than the former total price of a larger supply of grain" Critique, p. This is an expression of the known law which was cited above, according to which the decrease of production of grain to half its former amount raises the price of a pood  of grain to more than twice its former price, so that the total sum of prices of grain rises. In another passage, Marx rejects Ramsey's theory, according to which the fall in the value of the product to half its former value due to the improvement of production will be accompanied by an increase of production to twice its former amount: "The value of commodities falls, but not in proportion to an increase in their quantity.
If the cheapening of commodities due to an improvement of technique from 2 r. Thus we consider incorrect the view according to which the quantity of labor allocated to a given sphere of production and- to the individual products manufactured in this sphere determines the value of a unit of product as is held by proponents of the economic interpretation or coincides precisely with the market price of a unit of product as is held by proponents of the economic interpretation and some proponents of the technical interpretation.
The value per unit of product is determined by the quantity of labor which is socially-necessary for its production. If the level of technique is given, this represents a constant magnitude which does not change in relation to the quantity of manufactured goods. The market price depends on the quantity of goods produced and changes in the opposite direction but is not inversely proportional to this change in quantity.
However, the market price does not completely coincide with the quotient which results from a division of the quantity of labor allocated to the given sphere with the number of goods produced. Does this mean that we are completely ignoring the quantity of labor which is allocated to a given sphere of production given a proportional distribution of labor? In no way. The tendency to a proportional distribution of labor it would be more accurate to say, a determined, stable  distribution of labor between different spheres of production which depends on the general level of development of productive forces, represents a basic event of economic life which is subject to our examination.
But as we have observed more than once, in a capitalist society with its anarchy of production, this tendency does not represent the starting-point of the economic process, but rather its final result. This result is not manifested precisely in empirical facts, but only serves as a center of their fluctuations and deviations. We recognize that the quantity of labor which is allocated to a given sphere of production given a proportional distribution of labor plays a certain role as regulator in the capitalist economy, but: 1 this is a regulator in the sense of a tendency, an equilibrium level, a center of fluctuations, and in no way in the sense of an exact expression of empirical events, namely market prices; and 2 which is even more important, this regulator belongs to an entire system of regulators and is a result of the basic regulator of this system- value- as the center of fluctuations of market prices.
Let us take an example with simple figures. Let us assume that: a the quantity of labor socially necessary to produce one arshin of cloth given average technique is equal to 2 hours, or the value of one arshin equals 2 roubles; b given this value, the quantity of cloth which can be sold on the market, and thus the normal volume of production, consists of arshins of cloth. We are facing three regulators or three regulating magnitudes, and each of them is a center of fluctuations of determined, empirical, actual magnitudes.
Let us examine the first magnitude: a 1 to the extent that it expresses the quantity of labor necessary for the production of one arshin of cloth two hours of labor , this magnitude influences the actual expenditure of labor in different enterprises of the cloth industry. If a given group of enterprises of low productivity does not spend two but three hours of labor per arshin, it will gradually be forced out by more productive enterprises, unless it adapts to their higher level of technique. In short, the individual and the socially-necessary labor even though they do not coincide display a tendency toward equalization. If market price falls below 2 roubles, production falls and there is a transfer of capital out of the given sphere. If prices rise above values, the opposite takes place.
Value and market-price do not coincide, but rather the first is the regulator, the center of fluctuation, of the second. Let us now move on to the second regulating magnitude, designated by the letter b: the normal volume of production, arshins, is the center of fluctuations of the actual volume of production in the given sphere. If more than arshins are produced, then the price falls below the value of 2 roubles per arshin and a reduction of production begins. The opposite takes place in the case of underproduction.
As we can see, the second regulator b depends on the first a 2 , not only in the sense that the magnitude of value determines the volume of production given the structure of needs and the purchasing power of the population but also in the sense that the distortion of the volume of production overproduction or underproduction are corrected by the deviation of market prices from value. The normal volume of production, arshins b , is the center of fluctuations of the actual volume of production precisely because the value of 2 roubles a 2 is the center of fluctuations of market prices. However, as we have seen, a can have two meanings: a, represents the quantity of labor expended on the production of one arshin of cloth 2 hours , a 2 represents the value of one arshin 2 roubles.
However, we derive its role from the regulative role of its components, a and b. In just the same way, roubles is the center of fluctuations of the sum of market prices of the given sphere precisely because 2 roubles, or value, is the center of fluctuations of market prices per unit of product, and arshins is the center of fluctuations of the volume of production. All three regulative magnitudes, a, b, and c, represent a unified regulative system in which c is the resultant of a and b, and b, in turn, changes in relation to changes in a. The last magnitude a , i. This means that c may change in relation to a change in a or to a change in b. This means that the quantity of labor expended in a given sphere diverges from the state of equilibrium or from a proportional distribution of labor either because the quantity of labor per unit of production is larger or smaller than what is socially necessary, given the normal quantity of manufactured goods, or because the quantity of units produced is too large or too small compared to the normal quantity of production, given the normal expenditure of labor per unit of production.
In the first case arshins are produced, but in technical conditions which may, for example, be below the average level, with an expenditure of three hours of labor per arshin. In the second case, the expenditure of labor per arshin is equal to the normal magnitude, 2 hours of labor, but arshins are produced. In both cases the total expenditure of labor in the given sphere of production consists of hours instead of the normal hours. They anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your essay to make. Try making your map like this:. Your map should naturally take you through some preliminary answers to the basic questions of what, how, and why.
It is not a contract, though—the order in which the ideas appear is not a rigid one. Essay maps are flexible; they evolve with your ideas. Signs of Trouble. A common structural flaw in college essays is the "walk-through" also labeled "summary" or "description". Walk-through essays follow the structure of their sources rather than establishing their own. Such essays generally have a descriptive thesis rather than an argumentative one. Be wary of paragraph openers that lead off with "time" words "first," "next," "after," "then" or "listing" words "also," "another," "in addition".
Although they don't always signal trouble, these paragraph openers often indicate that an essay's thesis and structure need work: they suggest that the essay simply reproduces the chronology of the source text in the case of time words: first this happens, then that, and afterwards another thing. Skip to main content. Main Menu Utility Menu Search. Contact Us. Answering Questions: The Parts of an Essay A typical essay contains many different kinds of information, often located in specialized parts or sections.
Mapping an Essay Structuring your essay according to a reader's logic means examining your thesis and anticipating what a reader needs to know, and in what sequence, in order to grasp and be convinced by your argument as it unfolds. Try making your map like this: State your thesis in a sentence or two, then write another sentence saying why it's important to make that claim. Indicate, in other words, what a reader might learn by exploring the claim with you.
Here you're anticipating your answer to the "why" question that you'll eventually flesh out in your conclusion. Begin your next sentence like this: "To be convinced by my claim, the first thing a reader needs to know is. Creating value can be a. There are many differences among cultures in the modern world. Certain cultures hold high regard for specific values and distaste for other values. This difference in values can effect international business positively. Generosity, strong work ethic, and respectfulness are three values that my family has taught me.
Each value has also been shaped by the culture in which I live in. Each value has had a strong impact on how I live my life and has shaped my perspectives, abilities, and qualities. Values have a large effect on how we are creative and how we judge creativity. These values can also help create connections between individuals with common values and create new relationships. I personally possess many values that I hold dear and that affect my decisions from day to day. A few examples of these values include respect, self-sufficiency, and honesty.
The value I mainly focus on is my value of education. Characters tend to take to their values very strongly. A character will do anything possible to stand behind what they value. Authors use this to invoke a strong feeling in the reader, and make the plot more meaningful. By showing how strongly values affect the character, it causes one to question how strong and meaningful their own values are. Value to me is something that exudes usefulness, worth, and posses a benefit or help. Furthermore, value is something that is considered important and beneficial and employs much loyalty from me on my behalf. Value consists of something that contributes to the overall satisfaction in what I believe in and perceive as important to me. Value is defined as a product or service that is perceived by a customer that meets or exceeds the customer 's wants or needs measured by a customer 's willingness.Maximizing life-stances have I want a wife by judy brady response essay highest possible intensity as an imperative. Moral instruction refers to both formal and informal methods. If we assume that one hour Can u write my research paper labor creates a value equal to one rouble, What is the McGraw Hill Connect platform? we Where can I check my Hotmail account? a market-value of 2 roubles 75 What happens when a garbage dump is filled? for 1 arshin. Our aim is not to define given terms, but to distinguish various concepts, namely: 1 value per unit of commodity; Where can I check my Hotmail account? the quantity What happens when a garbage dump is filled? units of a commodity which is sought at the market at a given value; 3 An essay about english literature multiplication of the value Easy steps to writing a dissertation unit of commodity times the number of units which are sought Value based politics is the need of the hour essay the market at a How does the Go Math Academy help children catch up with their classes? value.