Health Promotion On Diabetes Essay
The interview Types of essays in college had two themes, health promotion and physical activity, with three main questions each Table II. Financial burden of household out-of pocket health expenditure in Viet Nam: Findings from the national living standard survey — Get An essay on dengue virus a habit of Cover letters for elementary education teachers daily and University of california sat essay validity studies a healthy weight that is advised by my doctor. Furthermore, the barriers that nurses face in their daily work indicate that it What are some fun sea otter facts for kids? be beneficial to develop the Andrew carnegie argued in his essay wealth that education and create a national standard or An essay on dengue virus for nurses to improve the social status of the nurses. A person cannot function Andrew carnegie argued in his essay wealth that this world if he doesnt know where his next meal is coming Health promotion on diabetes essay. J Med Internet Res, 13 Essay on the principle of population chapter summary Homework Help.
Diabetes and You - Diabetes Education for Newly Diagnosed Patients
Participant 9. Some patients they are so poor and they do not have enough money to buy medicines. The nurses considered that patient education was important because more knowledge would lead to a better quality of life as well as better health for the patients. To educate patients about health, disease, and self-care was described as a responsibility in nursing. Health promotion plays an important role to nurses because if the nurse do not teach or encourage the patient to do physical activity and have a healthy diet, the patient will easier get some complications. And if the patient got pressure ulcer or other complications, and a long stay in hospital, the nurse is responsible for these complications. To teach and educate the patient about a good lifestyle is a responsibility of nursing.
Nurses described how they could use their voices to encourage healthy behaviour as well as how to take their medicine. The nurses emphasized that individual patient education was important. With ESRD, the disease is individual. I try to teach the patient individually, I focus on the individual. Although many nurses emphasized the importance of individual patient education, patient education was often provided in a group with many patients.
Both in the endocrinology and the nephrology inpatients unit nurses described that the meetings were often organized once a week. At these meetings, the nurses could educate a large group of patients at the same time; often with all patients at the unit that had the possibility to participate. Nurses are overworked and too busy. Two nurses take care of over 40 patients, so we cannot focus on the individual. When we educate, we explain for the whole group in one time. Some nurses expressed a willingness to find new ways to provide patient education and suggested technics, such as internet, to connect with patients and their relatives, in their homes.
At the same time, the nurses described that the knowledge of the nurse was not always enough to provide patient education. The nurses requested more knowledge about health, disease, and self-care, as well as nursing methods to promote health. Nurses also described difficulties in educating the patients due to the low social status of the nurse. Maybe it is different in Vietnam, because the patient wants to hear the information from the doctor. If the nurse gives them some advice they may need a doctor to confirm it.
Participant 8. Health promotion was often described as a way to promote a healthy lifestyle. The nurses described how physical activity improved both physical and mental health as well as preventing complications of the disease. First about physical health, most ESRD patients have generalized edema. By doing physical activity like walking, it helps to reduce or avoid edema.
For patients who lie a long time in bed they have a high risk of pressure ulcer. This will be reduced with physical activity. Physical activity will help to reduce the time in hospital. If the patients do physical activity they can relax and have more interest in their lives. Participant 3. The nurses supported bedridden patients to be physically active in their beds. To help bedridden patients to move in their bed was described as a nursing intervention aimed to improve health and avoid complications such as decubitus.
The nurses also described massage and slight movements as interventions to promote health for severely ill patients. For patients who lie a long time in bed I can do massage for the patient. I can also help them to do some light movements in their bed, move legs and arms. There was a lack of space for patients to be physically active in the hospital area, with not enough areas for walking, jogging, or running.
There was also a lack of support devices, such as wheelchairs, crutches, and lifting devices. The nurses also requested training equipment for the patients at the hospital. Despite these barriers in the healthcare setting, the nurses also expressed hope for the future. In the future, if we have enough facilities, I want to organize some sport activities for the patients, and some competitions for every patient.
Then the nurses can encourage patients to take part in these activities. And we can have some small gifts for the patients; these gifts will help the patients to have the power to take part in these competitions. I hope, in the future, the hospital will arrange some activities every month so all the patients, not only in this department, they can come and join these activities, so the patients can extend their relationships with other patients from different departments. It would not be only for this department but the whole hospital. The nurses emphasized that health-promoting interventions created both positive relations with patients and relatives, and supported patients to be active and take part in society.
This can be linked to how Piper describes the nurse as an empowerment facilitator, which includes creating a nurse—patient partnership; to help patients cope with the reality and think positively Piper, Support from relatives and other patients was described as important when promoting health, and this is consistent with Pender who emphasizes how expectations and support from others are important to enable a healthy behaviour. This conception conforms to previous research that has shown that Vietnamese nurses did not consider that their education was complete Jones et al.
This indicates that health promotion and health-promoting strategies need to be further integrated in the nursing education as well as the workplace introduction. Furthermore, the nurses need time to practice health promotion in their daily work. This has also been shown in previous studies, which describe that all patients cannot follow the treatment due to economic conditions Baumann et al. This indicates how further work is necessary when dealing with inequalities in health in Vietnam, but much of this work lies outside the individual nurse's authority. Nurses expressed that they promoted health by answering questions, explaining and educating the patients and their relatives.
The nurses in the present study described how health education was organized at the hospitals as group education once a week. Therefore, this could be an opportunity to further develop these group meetings to improve education about health, disease, and self-care for patients and their relatives. The nurses described how patients wanted to hear the advice from the doctor; otherwise they did not trust the nurses.
This indicates that Vietnamese nurses social status is low. Therefore, it may be advantageous to create a national education program for nurses that also provide knowledge about healthy lifestyles and methods to promote health. This indicates that there is a need to integrate and raise health promotion in the daily work and allow time for health-promoting nursing, both in Vietnam and in other countries. Physical activity was emphasized as an important part of a healthy lifestyle, and the nurses thought it was important for the patients as well as the general public. Physical activity was described to improve both physical and mental health and to prevent complications.
This view of physical activity, as an important part to promote health, is consistent with descriptions about physical activity being an important issue in the treatment and prevention of T2DM Eckert, ; Ng et al. More resources are needed to actualize many of these ideas in the daily work and to create a supportive environment at the hospitals. On the contrary, it is described that there is a historical and traditional knowledge about the importance of physical activity in Vietnam; however, this knowledge has been forgotten by the younger generations Sundberg, Furthermore, there have been rapid changes in the Vietnamese society which have led to an adoption of a more sedentary lifestyle, where people choose to ride motorbikes instead of the traditional bicycle Baumann et al.
This indicates that, even if physical activity is considered to be an important intervention to promote health, there are major barriers to conquer for the Vietnamese nurses when advocating for physical activity. This limited the possibilities for the patients to be physically active while they stayed at the hospital. This is in line with Fitzgerald and Spaccarotella's description of how barriers to physical activity may be linked to socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhoods and environment. However, it should be obvious that hospitals contribute to the health in the community and provide a healing environment Hancock, Furthermore, there is a need for communities to promote physical activity and create supportive environments for active living Faskunger, There is also a need to strengthen nurses and other people's belief in the nursing knowledge.
In order to obtain a varied sample, the present study used a purposeful sample. However, variations in gender were limited, due to the fact that the majority of the nurses at the two units where the study was performed were women. The main difficulties with the present study were the language and the interpretation between English and Vietnamese. According to Foucault , the language is a discourse in itself; a collective code in society which is important for the perception of phenomena. To create a good interpretation of the interviews, the interpreters, who had Vietnamese as their mother tongue and were familiar with the Vietnamese nursing language, followed the development of the interview guide.
However, there were difficulties for the author to control the interviews and create a relationship with the informant due to the language barrier; therefore, it was not possible to create in-depth interviews. It was also difficult to create follow-up questions for the same reason. There were also cultural differences and organizational differences between Sweden and Vietnam that sometimes complicated the understanding of the answers. The interview guide could have been improved if more time was disposed for the pilot-interviews, but this was not possible due to the time limits.
Therefore, to create credibility for the present study, each conception was strengthened with some quotations from the interviews. This was ensured by the fact that the same author conducted all the interviews. In order to achieve a better understanding about nursing and the environment at hospitals in Vietnam, the first author spent some time at the hospitals, but was not involved in the patient care. To handle the author's preconceptions during the interviews, all interviews were done with curiosity and many clarifying questions were asked.
The hospitals where the participants worked were considered to be the best place for the interviews. Due to the lack of space and rooms, it was not possible to do the interviews in a separate room. This was perhaps unnecessary; however, other members of staff or patients who spoke to the participants interrupted many of the interviews. This may have caused the participant to lose focus regarding the interview question; however, at the same time, this was part of the environment at the hospital as well as in the Vietnamese society. The transferability of the findings to other healthcare settings in Vietnam is strengthened by the variations in gender, education, and years of nursing experience.
Nurses described how health was promoted by creating a positive relationship, by supporting patients to take part in their social context, by educating patients and relatives, and by supporting patients to be physically active. Nurses supported patients to connect with relatives and other patients, or take part in patient clubs and campaigns in society. Health education was mainly provided in larger groups with patients and relatives. Barriers to promote health include difficulties in communication with the patients, such as patients with lack of motivation, patients from ethnic minorities creating a language barrier, and patients with mental illnesses. Barriers in supporting patients to be physically active include a lack of support devices, training equipment, and space to be physically active.
The findings of this study indicate that there is a need to further integrate knowledge about health promotion in the Vietnamese nursing education. Furthermore, the barriers that nurses face in their daily work indicate that it would be beneficial to develop the nursing education and create a national standard or registration for nurses to improve the social status of the nurses. The authors have not received any funding or benefits from industry or elsewhere to conduct this study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. School of health and welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden. Pham, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden. E-mail: es.
Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Health promotion plays an important role in the management of diabetes and chronic kidney disease, especially when the prevalence of the disease is rising in Vietnam. Keywords: Diabetes and chronic kidney disease, in-patient care, health promotion, physical activity, nursing, phenomenography. Nursing and healthcare in Vietnam The Vietnamese culture and religious beliefs, which are influenced by Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism, is described to affect nursing and healthcare in Vietnam. Method A descriptive qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach was used in the study.
Participants The first author was a Swedish registered nurse. Table I Overview of participants. Sex Female 23 Male 2 Age 18—30 18 31—55 7 Education 2—3 years 21 4 years or more bachelor degree 4 Work place Endocrinology unit 10 Nephrology unit 15 Inpatients 18 Outpatients 7 Work experience 4 months—1 year 4 2—5 years 12 6—14 years 4 15—20 years 5. Open in a separate window. Data collection Data collection was conducted during five weeks in March and April, Table II Six open questions used in the interview of the 25 informants. What does health promotion means to you?
What do you think about health promotion as a part of nursing? What do you think about your possibilities to promote health to your patients? What kind of difficulties do you face in work when motivating patients to be more physically active? Data analysis After the interviews were performed, the author listened to the interviews again, and the translated answers were transcribed verbatim into English. The analysis of the data followed Dahlgren and Fallsberg's recommendations: Familiarization. In this step, the four descriptive categories were named. Ethical considerations The study was approved by the ethical committee at Halmstad University in Sweden, Dnr: Participant 7 The nurses described various difficulties in creating a positive relationship with the patients.
Participant 1 Patients are too old, have severe diseases, patients think that they are coming to the hospital to have treatment. Participant 20 There are many clubs for the patient, clubs for diabetes patients, and clubs for hypertension patients. Participant 10 The nurses described how they handled the collectivistic society where support from others plays an important role in the health-promoting work. Participant 5 In this hospital, most of the patients are elderly so I must talk to their relatives. Participant 16 Although many nurses emphasized the importance of individual patient education, patient education was often provided in a group with many patients.
Participant 13 Maybe it is different in Vietnam, because the patient wants to hear the information from the doctor. Participant 22 If the patients do physical activity they can relax and have more interest in their lives. Participant 3 The nurses supported bedridden patients to be physically active in their beds. Conclusion Nurses described how health was promoted by creating a positive relationship, by supporting patients to take part in their social context, by educating patients and relatives, and by supporting patients to be physically active.
Conflict of interest and funding The authors have not received any funding or benefits from industry or elsewhere to conduct this study. References Baumann L. C, Blobner D, Ta V. B, Pham T. A training program for diabetes care in Vietnam. The Diabetes Educator. Health promotion practice and its implementation in Swedish health care. International Nursing Review. A, Melkus G. D, Katten D. M, Price W. J, Davey J. A, Grey N, et al. The association of psychological factors, physical activity, neuropathy, and quality of life in type 2 diabetes. Biological Research for Nursing. L, Weismuller P. Asian motivators for health promotion.
Journal of Transcultural Nursing. Leading an international nursing partnership- the Vietnam nurse project. Nursing Administration Quarterly. Phenomenography as a qualitative approach in social pharmacy research. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy. Impact of physical activity and bodyweight on health-related quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes. Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. Promoting active living in healthy cities of Europe.
Barriers to a healthy lifestyle: From individuals to public policy-An ecological perspective. Journal of Extension. Vetandets arkeologi. M, Nguyen T. Poverty reduction by improving health and social services in Vietnam. Nursing and Health Science. Health promotion planning and strategies. London: Sage; Creating health and health promoting hospitals: A worthy challenge for the twenty-first century. S, Crow G. Vietnam nurse project: Teaching in Hanoi. Lower physical activity, but not excessive calorie intake, is associated with metabolic syndrome in elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Japanese elderly diabetes intervention trial.
Geriatrics Gerontology International. K, Vuong M. T, Tuyen D. G, Vinh L. D, Huong N. T, et al. Impact and perspective on chronic kidney disease in an Asian developing country: A large-scale survey in North Vietnam. Nephron Clinical Practice. S, O'Toole M. T, Ngyuen H, Tran T. Although its onset has been commonly seen among adults, its onset among children and adolescents has seen a recent rise WHO. The increased inactivity and unhealthy diet among children and adolescents has also been apparent as the primary cause of this health issue. This paper aims to develop an understanding of the foundations which underlie the responses to diabetes among teenage girls. It also aims to develop an understanding of the strategies, activities, and processes employed in health promotion interventions which respond to diabetes among teenage girls.
It shall first analyze the socio-ecological context of this health issue, and the intervention which can be applied to this issue. It shall also identify, analyze, and discuss the foundations underlying the selected intervention. And finally, it shall identify, analyze, and discuss the strategies, activities, and processes employed by the intervention in addressing the health issue. Body Socio-ecological context The worldwide epidemic of diabetes is largely based on adult and childhood obesity. Both genetic and environmental factors also seem to be playing an equally important role in the prevalence of this disease in our society. Studies also point out the disproportionate incidence of obesity among men and women, with women more likely to be obese during their childhood and teenage years, as compared to males Kral.
Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. This assignment will address the public health issue of the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus diabetes and explore links with health inequalities both nationally and locally. It will discuss the frameworks available which give guidance for standards of care for diabetes patients and their influence on diabetes care.
It will then critically discuss the issue of diabetes management in relation to patient education and the ability of patients to self-manage their chronic long-term condition, evaluating both the role of both healthcare professionals and individuals in achieving the best possible healthy outcomes. It will then discuss whether all people get the same level of diabetes care, in particular focusing on people who are not able to attend GP surgeries.
Public health is defined as "The science and art of promoting and protecting health and wellbeing, preventing ill health and prolonging life through the organised efforts of society" Faculty of Public Health Yet many health inequalities still exist in the UK, some of which will be discussed in this paper. Essay: Health promotion and chronic kidney disease Essay: Health promotion and chronic kidney disease What is health?
Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capacities WHO. Decades ago governmental officials of the world, agreed to come together, despite of whatever conflicts, or political disagreements, to attain health for all the people of the world by the year They wanted citizens of the world to all have access to basic, essential health care. The Alma-Ata of was the first international declaration professing the significance of public healthcare. The Alma-Ata commences by stating that health, which is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity is a fundamental human right and that the attainment of the highest possible level of health is a most important world-wide social goal WHO The countries of the world, worked towards their goal but unfortunately did not achieve it by their targeted date.
On November 21st, thke first international conference on Health Promotion was held. Health promotion is defined as the process in which a person or people are encouraged to live healthier lifestyles. This promotion is expected to be holistic-physically, mentally and socially, so that everyones basic needs can be satisfied. A person cannot function in this world if he doesnt know where his next meal is coming from. How can he focus on his health, if he has no home? An unemployed mans last thought is to get his annual physical done. You can view samples of our professional work here. This written rationale will identify and explain the necessity for the promotion of public health and physical activity.
It will demonstrate an understanding of the role, function and settings of public health and physical activity promotion by national, regional and local agencies. It will also analyse and evaluate the health related models and approaches to public health and physical activity promotion. There are many definitions for Health. Health means different things to different people, if someone doesn't drink and smoke then they believe that they are healthy, or if they eat a good balanced diet for example. The main most known definition of health is from the World Health Organization. World Health Organisation states: 'Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Health is a dynamic condition resulting from a body's constant adjustment and adaptation in response to stresses and changes in the environment for maintaining an inner equilibrium called homeostasis. Health promotion involves doing things to prevent disease and to improve individual and communities health. Next 1 Recommendations This is NICE's formal guidance on preventing type 2 diabetes using population and community-level interventions with high-risk groups and the general population. When writing the recommendations, the Programme Development Group PDG see appendix A considered the evidence of effectiveness including cost effectiveness , fieldwork data and comments from stakeholders and experts.
Full details are available. The evidence statements underpinning the recommendations are listed in appendix C. The PDG considers that the recommended measures are cost effective. For the research recommendations and gaps in research, see section 5 and appendix D respectively. Diabetes is a group of disorders with a number of common features characterised by raised blood glucose. In England the four commonest types of diabetes are: The underlying disorder for type 2 diabetes is usually insulin insensitivity combined with a failure of pancreatic insulin secretion to compensate for increased glucose levels.
The insulin insensitivity is usually evidenced by excess body weight or obesity, and exacerbated by over-eating and inactivity. It is commonly associated with raised blood pressure and a disturbance of blood lipid levels. The insulin deficiency is progressive over time, leading to a need for lifestyle change often combined with blood glucose lowering therapy. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed in adults who are not pregnant by a glycated haemoglobin HbA1c level of 6. A type 2 diabetes diagnosis can also be made by: The following table defines a healthy weight in relation to height using the body mass index BMI. BMI is calculated from the weight in kg divided by the height in metres squared. Get a Bachelor of Applied Public Health and choose to study full or part time, online or on campus at Torrens Sted euthanasia essay, creative writing hurricane, business plan writers omaha ne.
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