Essay On Indian Education System And Its Development
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The 3 Myths of the Indian Education System - Vinay Menon - TEDxThiruvananthapuram
He also abandoned the existing policy of educational laissez-faire and introduced a stricter control over private schools through a vigilant policy of inspection and control. Such a policy aroused bitter feelings among some educated Indians, since it was believed that Curzon was bent on bringing the entire system of education under government control. The main battle, however, was fought over the universities. With Eton and Balliol in mind, Baron Curzon set up the Indian Universities Commission of to bring about a better order in higher education. The commission made a number of important recommendations—namely, to limit the size of the university senates, to entrust teaching in addition to examining powers to universities, to insist on a high educational standard from affiliated colleges, to grant additional state aids to universities, to improve courses of studies, to abolish second-grade colleges, and to fix a minimum rate of fees in the affiliated colleges.
The report was severely criticized, and the last two recommendations had to be dropped. Legislation in regard to the other proposals was passed despite bitter opposition in the legislature and the press. The conflict resulted less from educational differences than from political opinions on centralization. In one part of the country, violent agitation had already started on the question of the partition of Bengal. The administrative policy of Baron Curzon also gave rise to the first organized movement for national education. This effort was part of the Swadeshi movement, which called for national independence and the boycotting of foreign goods. A body known as the National Council of Education established a national college and a technical institution the present Jadavpur University in Calcutta Kolkata and 51 national schools in Bengal.
These schools sought to teach a trade in addition to ordinary subjects of the matriculation syllabus. The movement received a great impetus, because the Calcutta Congress resolved that the time had arrived for organizing a national system of education. With the slackening of the swadeshi movement, however, most of the national schools were eventually closed. The effect of the movement was nevertheless noticeable elsewhere: Rabindranath Tagore started his famous school in West Bengal near Bolpur in ; the Arya Pratinidhi Sabha established gurukulas at Vrindaban and Haridwar; and the Indian National Congress and the All-India Muslim League at their sessions in Allahabad and Nagpur, respectively, passed resolutions in favour of free and compulsory primary education.
In Baron Curzon left India. In order to pacify the general public, his successors modified his policy to some extent, but the main program was resolutely enforced. Although Indian public opinion continued its opposition, the reforms of Baron Curzon brought order into education. Universities were reconstituted and organized, and they undertook teaching instead of merely conducting examinations for degrees. Colleges were no longer left to their own devices but were regularly visited by inspectors appointed by the universities.
The government also became vigilant and introduced a better system for inspecting and granting recognition to private schools; the slipshod system of elementary education was also improved. The number of colleges and secondary schools continued to increase as the demand for higher education developed. Covering a wide field, the commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work.
The government of India issued a resolution in January summarizing the report of the commission. Since then all legislation of any importance on higher education in any part of India has embodied some of the recommendations of the commission. In each province, educational policy and administration passed into the hands of a minister of education, responsible to the provincial legislature and ultimately to the people. Generally, the new constitution of was considered inadequate by the Indian National Congress. In protest, Mahatma Gandhi launched the noncooperation movement, the campaign to boycott English institutions and products.
The courses of study in these institutions did not differ much from those in recognized schools, but Hindi was studied as an all-India language in place of English, and the mother tongue was used as the medium of instruction. These institutions functioned for a short time only and disappeared with the suppression of the noncooperation movement. The Government of India Act of further strengthened the position of the provincial ministers of education, since the Congress was in power in major provinces.
The developmental program of provincial governments included the spread of primary education, the introduction of adult education, a stress on vocational education, and an emphasis on the education of girls and underprivileged people. The importance of English was reduced, and Indian languages, both as subjects of study and as media of instruction, began to receive greater attention. On this general background, educational developments from the inauguration of reforms in until independence in can be viewed.
In the field of elementary education, the most important event was the passing of compulsory-education acts by provincial governments—acts empowering local authorities to make primary education free and compulsory in the areas under their jurisdiction. A general demand for secondary education developed with the political awakening among the masses. Schools in rural, semi-urban, and less-advanced communities were established, as were schools for girls. Some provision was made for alternative or vocational courses when the provincial governments started technical, commercial, and agricultural high schools and gave larger grants to private schools providing nonliterary courses.
But the expected results were not achieved because of a lack of funds and of trained teachers. Secondary schools still concentrated on preparing students for admission to colleges of arts and sciences. The period was also marked by a diminishing of the prejudices against the education of girls. The impetus came from the national movement launched by Gandhi, which led thousands of women to come out of the purdah for the cause of national emancipation. It was also realized that the education of the girl was the education of the mother and, through her, of her children.
Between —22 and —47, the number of educational institutions for girls was nearly doubled. In the field of university education, outstanding developments included 1 the stablishment of 14 new universities, unitary as well as affiliating, 2 the democratization of the administrative bodies of older universities by a substantial increase in the number of elected members, 3 the expansion of academic activities through the opening of several new faculties, courses of studies, and research, 4 a substantial increase in the number of colleges and student enrollments, 5 the provision of military training and greater attention to physical education and recreational activities of students, and 6 the constitution of the Inter-University Board and the development of intercollegiate and interuniversity activities.
With these improvements, however, the educational system of the country had become top-heavy. The education sector was a prime one among the various sectors which needed reforms and proactive Government support. The constitution envisaged a welfare state from which could ensue in a social democracy and as aptly indicated in the Directive Principles of State Policy, it aimed at imparting education for the destitute and rich alike. Apart from that the Fundamental duties laid out by the drafting committee exhorted the people to develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of enquiry and reforms.
In fact reforms were started prior to independence though they lacked the pace to form the foundation for a rising sovereign. To mark a fresh beginning, a fully fledged Department of Education, under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was established on 29th August Education of masses later became the motto of many political and civil movements and today we see ourselves at a time when Education has become a fundamental right through the landmark legislation of RTE, The compilation briefly outlines the developments in the education sector after the eve of independence. History of Education in post Independence. A mild retrospection reveals that the new constitution adopted by India did not change the overall administrative policy of the country and Education continued to be prime responsibility of the states and the union government continued to assume responsibility for the coordination of educational facilities and the maintenance of appropriate standards in higher education and research and in scientific and technical education.
Meanwhile the Planning Commission was set up to plan the goals for every five year which would elevate the standards of living. The main goals of these plans with relevance to education sector were, 1. To achieve universal elementary education 2. To eradicate illiteracy 3. To establish vocational and skill training programs 4. To upgrade standards and modernize all stages of education, with special emphasis on technical education, science, and environmental education, on morality, and on the relationship between school and work, and 5. To provide facilities for high-quality education in every district of the country. But the major developments came with appointment of three important commissions by the Government though over a span of a couple of decades, for suggesting educational reforms.
The University Education Commission of made valuable recommendations regarding the reorganization of courses, techniques of evaluation, media of instruction, student services, and the recruitment of teachers. The Secondary Education Commission of —53 focused mainly on secondary and teacher education. The Education Commission of —66 made a comprehensive review of the entire field of education. It developed a national pattern for all stages of education. This policy was revised in The new policy emphasized educational technology, ethics, and national integration. A core curriculum was introduced to provide a common scheme of studies throughout the country.
The national department of education was a part of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, headed by a cabinet minister. A Central Advisory Board of Education counseled the national and state governments. There were several autonomous organizations attached to the Department of Education. The first body advised the government on technical education and maintained standards for the development of technical education. The second body promoted and coordinated university education and determined and maintained standards of teaching, examination, and research in the universities. It had the authority to enquire into the financial methods of the universities and to allocate grants.
The third body worked to upgrade the quality of school education and assisted and advised the Ministry of Human Resource Development in the implementation of its policies and major programs in the field of education. The central government ran and maintained about 1, central schools for children of central government employees. It also developed schools offering quality education to qualified high achievers, irrespective of ability to pay or socioeconomic background.
The seventh five-year plan —90 specified that one such vidyalaya would be set up in each district. The state governments were responsible for all other elementary and secondary education. Conditions, in general, were not satisfactory, although they varied from state to state. Higher education was provided in universities and colleges. The primary schools, especially, experienced rapid growth because the states gave highest priority to the universalisation of elementary education in order to fulfill the constitutional directive of providing universal, free, and compulsory education for all children up to the age of Most, but not all, children had a primary school within 1 km of their homes.
A large percentage of these schools, however, were understaffed and did not have adequate facilities. The government, when it revised the national policy for education in , resolved that all children who attained the age of 19 years by would have five years of formal schooling or its equivalent. Plans were also made to improve or expand adult and informal systems of education. Dissension among political parties, industrialists, businessmen, teacher politicians, student politicians, and other groups and the consequent politicization of education hampered progress at every stage, however.
The role of Universal Elementary Education UEE for strengthening the social fabric of democracy through provision of equal opportunities to all has been accepted since the inception of our Republic. Its overall goals include universal access and retention, bridging of gender and social category gaps in education and enhancement of learning levels of children. SSA provides for a variety of interventions, including inter alia, opening of new schools and alternate schooling facilities,construction of schools and additional provisioning for teachers,periodic teacher training and academic resource support, textbooks and support for learning achievement.
These provisions need to be aligned with the legally mandated norms and standards and free entitlements mandated by the RTE Act. The new law provides a justiciable legal framework that entitles all children between the ages of years free and compulsory admission,attendance and completion of elementary education. SSA interventions include inter alia, opening of new schools and alternate schooling facilities, construction of schools and additional classrooms, toilets and drinking water, provisioning for teachers, periodic teacher training and academic resource support, textbooks and support for learning achievement. The changes encompass the vision and approach to elementary education, guided by the following principles: i Holistic view of education, as interpreted in the National Curriculum Framework , with implications for a systemic revamp of the entire content and process of education with significant implications for curriculum, teacher education, educational planning and management.
All states must move in that direction as speedily as feasible. In MDMS became a cooked Mid Day Meal Scheme under which every child in every Government and Government aided primary school was to be served a prepared Mid Day Meal with a minimum content of calories of energy and gram protein per day for a minimum of days. In September the Scheme was revised to provide for Central Assistance for Cooking cost Re 1 per child per school day to cover cost of pulses, vegetables cooking oil, condiments, fuel and wages and remuneration payable to personnel or amount payable to agency responsible for cooking. Transport subsidy was also raised from the earlier maximum of Rs 50 per quintal to Rs.
A provision for serving mid day meal during summer vacation in drought affected areas was also made. In July the Scheme was further revised to enhance the cooking cost to Rs 1. The nutritional norm was revised to Calories and 12 gram of protein. In order to facilitate construction of kitchen-cum-store and procurement of kitchen devices in schools provision for Central assistance Rs. In October , the Scheme was extended to cover children of upper primary classes i. The nutritional norm for upper primary stage was fixed at Calories and 20 grams of protein.
The Scheme was extended to all areas across the country from 1. It opens the world of work to the youth of the country and contributes to socio economic development of the Community. Secondary Education is a crucial stage in the educational hierarchy as it prepares the students for higher education and also the world of work. With the liberalization and globalization of the Indian economy, the rapid changes witnessed in scientific and technological world and the general need to improve the quality of life and to reduce poverty, it is essential that schools leavers acquire a higher level of knowledge and skills than what they are provided in the eight years of elementary education, particularly when the average earning of a secondary school certificate holder is significantly higher than that of a person who has studied only up to class VIII.
The policy at present is to make secondary education of good quality available, accessible and affordable to all young persons in the age group of This ceremony was performed at the ages of 8,11 and 12 for the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, respectively. The ceremony signaled the childs transition from infancy to childhood and his initiation into educational life. Celibacy or Brahamacharya. Every student was required to observe celibacy in his specific path of life. Purity of conduct was regarded as of supreme importance. Only the unmarried could become students in a Gurukul. Its quality depended on the caste of the student. The students were not allowed to make use of fragrant, cosmetic or intoxicating things. Alms System.
The student had to bear the responsibility of feeding both himself and his teacher, this was done through begging for alms, which was not considered bad. Since every domestic knew that his own son must be begging for alms in the same way at some other place. The reason behind the introduction of such a practice was that accepting alms induces humility. For the poor students, Begging for alms was compulsory and unavoidable, but even among the prosperous, it was generally accepted practice.
Apart from intellectual aspect of education its practical side was not lost sight of and along with art, literature and philosophy, students got a working knowledge of animal husbandry, agriculture and other professions of life. In addition education in medicine was also imported. Duration of Education. In the house of the teacher, the student was required to obtain education up to the age of 24, after which he was expected to enter domestic life students were divided into three categories:. Although the education of this period was dominated by the study of Vedic Literature, historical study, stories of heroic lives and discourses on the puranas also formed a part of the syllabus.
Students had necessarily to obtain knowledge of metrics. Arithmetic was supplemented by the knowledge of geometry. The syllabus took with in its compass such subjects as spiritual as well as materialistic knowledge, Vedas, Vedic grammar, arithmetic knowledge of gods, knowledge of the absolute, knowledge of ghosts, astronomy, logic philosophy ethics, conduct etc.
The richness of the syllabus was responsible of the creation of Brahman literature in this period. Plain Living and High Thinking. The education institutions were residential in the form of Gurukulas situated in forest, where teachers and pupils lived together. Academic Freedom. Due to academic freedom students remained busy in thinking and meditation. It enhanced originality among them. High place to Indian culture.
Indian culture was full of religious feelings and it was assigned a very high place in the field of education. Vedic culture was kept intact and transmitted through word of mouth to succeeding generations. The ancient Indian education system was also successful in Preserving and spreading its culture and literature even without the help of art of writing, it was only because of the destruction of temples and monasteries by invaders that literature was lost. The cultural unity that exists even today in the vast- sub continent in due to the successful preservation and spread of culture and the credit goes to Ancient Education System. Commercial Education and Mathematics Education.
Commercial education and Mathematics education is also one of the chief features of vedic period. The ideas of the scope and nature of commercial education can be held from manu. Knowledge of Commercial geography, needs of the people of various localities, exchange value and quality of articles and language spoken at different trade centre were considered necessary. Theory of banking was also included in the course.
Though there were no organized educational institutional training was usually imparted in the family. As far as Mathematics education is concerned, ancient Indian quite early evolved simple system of geometry. Shulva sutra are the oldest mathematical works probably compased between BC and A. Aryabhata The concept of Zero also belonged to this period.
Female Education. During the Vedic age women were given full status with men. For girls also the Upanayan initiation ceremony was performed and after that their education began. They were also required to lead a life of celibacy during education. Finally, it is also important that the availability of employment is aligned with the skills of individuals applying for the positions. Giving skilled people the opportunity to apply their knowledge and experience in their profession makes them more productive, which contributes to GDP growth.
In conclusion, education continues to play a pivotal role in the development of a country. However, other important factors should play a role in order to achieve steady and continuous progress. This response adequately addresses the task prompt. Each paragraph has its role and they are used effectively to organise ideas and information. The coherence and advanced vocabulary help the writer to create an impression of a skilled, fluent English user. Good control of grammar and punctuation is evident. This site is really improving my writing band score because i am recieving many points.
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