Organization Of A Thesis Paper

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Organization Of A Thesis Paper

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How to write a Master’s Thesis - Academic writing tips and advice for writing a dissertation

Do not go into an extensive literature review; two to four most relevant and recent citations should be adequate to corroborate a state- ment. Do not repeat well-known facts nor state the obvious. For example, it is disappointing that even now, i. Different journals follow different norms and styles. Some want discussion of lit- erature in the Introduction while some want it in the Discussion section. Some journals require a brief account of the Materials and Methods to be included in the Introduction section, and some may want even the important conclusions presented in the Introduction section, although that tendency is now disappearing.

This section should provide all the information needed to allow another researcher to judge the study or actually repeat the experiment. The simplest way to organize this section is chronologically; include all necessary information, but avoid unnecessary details that the readers are supposed ought to know. Generic or chemical names are better than trade names, which may not be universally recognized. Methods followed should be described, usually in chronological order, with as much precision and detail as necessary.

Standard methods need only be mentioned, or may be described by reference to the literature as long as it is readily available. Modifications of standard techniques should be described. If the method is new it should be described in detail. Do not include excessive description of common procedures. The Materials and Methods section is presented in past tense. But this general rule has some exceptions especially when it comes to applied disciplines such as agroforestry. For example, in scientific publications with a regional focus, locally popular, non-SI units may be used if that would help clarify interpretation or understanding of the data, but such units should be explained in relation to SI units at their first mention in text see Sect.

Thus, the value of the paper depends on what is contained in this Results section, and it must be presented in an absolutely clear manner in just the right number of words, neither more nor less. It is usually easiest to follow the results if they are presented in the same order as the objectives are presented in the Introduction. While tables present accurate numbers, figures show trends and features. Do not present the same data in tables and graphs. More on tables and figures are presented in Chap. The section pulls everything together and shows the importance and value of the work and is therefore the most innovative and difficult part of the paper to write.

The Discussion section is written in both present and past tenses. Current knowledge from literature is stated in present tense, whereas the work being reported and discussed in the paper your own work is presented in past tense; e. Analytical insight is what we should strive for in the Discussion section, but unfortunately, it is difficult to describe how to accomplish that. Some amount of speculative discussion, however, is in order to elicit excitement and motivate future research. Sherlock Holmes and his sidekick Dr. John H. Watson went on a camping trip. After a good meal and a bottle of wine they lay down for the night, and went to sleep. Some hours later, Holmes awoke and nudged his faithful friend.

Astrologically, I observe that Saturn is in Leo. Theologically, I can see that God is all powerful and that we are small and insignificant. Meteorologically, I suspect that we will have a beautiful day tomorrow. The second story is about the elementary school science experiment to show the danger of alcohol: The teacher set up two glasses, one containing water and the other containing gin. A worm was dropped into each glass. The worm in gin died immediately while the worm in water swam around merrily.

Some journals do not allow a separate Conclusion section. In that case, the last paragraph or a few sentences of the Discussion can be used to state the conclusions. This is also the place to mention the genesis of the paper, i. If there is no separate acknowledgments section, such material and appreciation could be introduced at the end of the text, or in the Introduction or as a footnote or endnote.

Standardization of reference-citation style has been talked about for a while, and some progress has been made. In this system, it is easy to add or delete the references, which is an advantage to the author. To the reader, however, it is tedious when several cita- tions are listed in the same sentence or paragraph, as in the Introduction and Discussion sections. Numbered Alphabetical listing: The list in the numbered alphabetical system is arranged in the same order, but the references are numbered.

The citation in the text is by number in parentheses rather than name and year. Obviously, addition or deletion of references is not easy and that could be a big problem for authors of papers with several references. The numbering in the order in which citations are listed will also separate out various references by the same author, which could also be a disadvantage. Interestingly, the CBE Style Manual by the Council of Biology Editors and the Chicago Manual of Style, two powerful and respected style manuals, have opposing views on style: the former adopts the number-alphabet system, while the latter endorses the alphabetical order of listings. In any case, the style being recommended by most science editors is to produce easily understood citations with a minimum of punctuation marks.

Thus journal abbreviations are becoming almost uniform. Note, however, that one- word titles of journals Science, Biochemistry are not abbreviated. These include details of ecological factors such as weather, soil, and plants; socioeco- nomic data; survey instruments such as questionnaires; procedures of any special laboratory analyses and statistical treatment of data; computer programs; and such other details that are useful for full explanation and understanding of the results, but are too bulky and complex to be included in the main text of the paper.

The problem, what is not known, the objective of the study Materials and How was the study done? Discussion What does it mean? What next? Interpretation of results and future directions Conclusion Possible implications Acknowledgments Who helped and how; what was the funding source? Related Papers. By Bharat Barad. By Miressa Beyene. How not to write research papers in agroforestry. How not to write research papers in agroforestry by PKR Nair v—xvi Contrasting rooting patterns of some arid-zone fruit tree species from Botswana—I.

Fine root distribution. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. By arini ruku. For example, some colleges will recommend that your discussion come before your conclusion, and others may want the conclusion before discussion and many others. Regardless of how a thesis paper is structured in your institution, location, or discipline, all these have in common a basic thesis structure. You should, however, bear in mind that this thesis structure example may be different from a master thesis structure in some cases.

The basic structure of a thesis paper contains the following:. This is the same for a thesis paper, too; preliminary pages are to start the structure of a thesis paper. The preliminary pages consist of a title page, acknowledgments optional , abstract a summary of your work usually written last after your main work has been completed , table of contents, list of figures and tables, list of abbreviations optional , and glossary optional. The next part of the thesis paper is the introduction. In this part, you are expected to communicate clearly and engagingly what to expect in the thesis paper. Your thesis organization introduction should contain the following:. The main work is an important part of thesis papers.

In this section, you get to communicate to the readers the actual work you have done while taking them through the process that made you arrive at your results. The main work includes the following, divided into different chapters; the literature review, methodology, research results, summary, and conclusion. This is the most voluminous part of a thesis paper. This is because it shows a literature review about the problem you are addressing while displaying how thorough your understanding of the problem is.

A good literature review should critically evaluate and analyze sources, draw connections between them and identify the gaps between what is being contained in these sources literature gap. At this point, you can now project your research as a solution to an unresolved problem. This section gives your readers a description of how you conducted your research. It also contains information like the research design, population, area, sampling procedure, tools and materials used, method of data analysis, and many others. This part of the thesis paper aims to report the research process accurately. Therefore, you should structure this section in the best way to achieve this concerning your discipline.

These are usually grouped into two different sections. The section for results should report all the results of your research. The section for discussion should also thoroughly explain the meaning and implications of your results to your research concept. These sections are usually the last parts of the main work of a thesis paper. As such, they should leave the reader with a clear understanding of the knowledge your paper has contributed while suggesting recommendations.

These two sections are usually the last parts of a thesis paper. In the reference section, you must include all the sources you have mentioned in your work. It must also follow a constant referencing style dictated by your discipline, institution, or supervisor.

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