Essays Of Arthur Schopenhauer Quotes

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Essays Of Arthur Schopenhauer Quotes



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Top Arthur Schopenhauer Quotes

Error always does harm; sooner or later it will bring mischief to the man who harbors it. Then give up deceiving people; confess ignorance of what you don't know, and leave everyone to form his own articles of faith for himself. Perhaps they won't turn out so bad, especially as they'll rub one another's corners down, and mutually rectify mistakes. The existence of many views will at any rate lay a foundation of tolerance.

Those who possess knowledge and capacity may betake themselves to the study of philosophy, or even in their own persons carry the history of philosophy a step further. Part IV, Ch. Payne, trans. Hollingdale Variant translation: Just as the largest library, badly arranged, is not so useful as a very moderate one that is well arranged, so the greatest amount of knowledge, if not elaborated by our own thoughts, is worth much less than a far smaller volume that has been abundantly and repeatedly thought over. Parerga and Paralipomena , Counsels and Maxims. Die Wahrheit kann warten: denn sie hat ein langes Leben vor sich.

Willen in der Natur On the Will in Nature , ; in the chapter Einleitung Introduction Variant translation by Karl Hillebrand: Truth can bide its time, for it has a long life before it. Part III, Ch. VIII, 9, p. Mostly quoted rather incorrectly as: All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident. Auch pflegt das erstere Schicksal ihren Urheber mitzutreffen. Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung.

Leipzig XVI books. Man wolle nicht scheinen was man nicht ist. Parerga and Paralipomena Arthur Schopenhauer. Aphorisms on the Wisdom of Life Arthur Schopenhauer. On the Basis of Morality Arthur Schopenhauer. The Christian System Arthur Schopenhauer. The satisfaction that a subject gains from experiencing the beauty of these representations is a major source of pleasure. Secondly, people gain pleasure that people gain from consciously turning away from their will. In such an event, an individual gains pleasure from the pride or respect that comes about as a result. Finally, people gain pleasure from the views that they have from the ideas that they have generated. Thus, from this analysis, it is evident that people can gain pleasure either from their subjective side or their objective side.

An important argument that Schopenhauer developed was with regards to aesthetic freedom. While explaining his concept of aesthetic experience, Schopenhauer stated that people need to expand their level of cognition for them to achieve aesthetic experience. However, in so doing, individuals will have to deviate from the views and perspectives that they have on time, space, and causality, which in turn deviates them further away from their will. However, Schopenhauer argues that the intellectuality in individuals highly depend on the will that they have. In this respect therefore, it is impossible for individuals to achieve aesthetic value since they have to go against their intellectuality hence bringing about two characters within an individual; the empirical character and the empirical character.

However, the intelligent character is capable of detaching itself from the will of an individual. In his view therefore, Schopenhauer believes that in this case, such an individual will gain aesthetic freedom and to a higher extent, human freedom Sandra, The aesthetic writings of Schopenhauer reveal that people live to achieve their will in life. Thus, the main desire that people have in their lives is to achieve their will. However, with every desire that we achieve, people tend to lose the focus that they had in life or seek new desires.

In the process therefore, people use their intellectuality to strive and achieve our desires in life. Despite the fact that the intelligence that people might have, our empirical character always seeks to achieve our desires in life. Schopenhauer concluded that the only way we can free ourselves from our will is by failing to pursue our desires. This will give people the freedom from aesthetic experience as well as humanity. Cartwright, D. Idealistic Studies , 31 2 : 31— Gardiner, P. Middlesex: Penguin Books Guyer, P. Jacket Ed. Schopenhauer, Philosophy and the Arts.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Janaway, C. Oxford: Blackwell. Sandra, S. Need a custom Essay sample written from scratch by professional specifically for you? Schopenhauer's writings influenced many, from Friedrich Nietzsche to nineteenth-century feminists. When the elderly Schopenhauer sat for a sculpture portrait by the Prussian sculptor Elisabet Ney in , he was much impressed by the young woman's wit and independence, as well as by her skill as a visual artist. I believe that if a woman succeeds in withdrawing from the mass, or rather raising herself above the mass, she grows ceaselessly and more than a man. In the third, expanded edition of The World as Will and Representation , Schopenhauer added an appendix to his chapter on the Metaphysics of Sexual Love.

He wrote that pederasty has the benefit of preventing ill-begotten children. Concerning this, he stated that "the vice we are considering appears to work directly against the aims and ends of nature, and that in a matter that is all important and of the greatest concern to her it must in fact serve these very aims, although only indirectly, as a means for preventing greater evils". I have done so by giving them the opportunity of slandering me by saying that I defend and commend pederasty. Schopenhauer viewed personality and intellect as inherited. He quotes Horace 's saying, "From the brave and good are the brave descended" Odes , iv, 4, 29 and Shakespeare's line from Cymbeline , "Cowards father cowards, and base things sire base" IV, 2 to reinforce his hereditarian argument.

For Schopenhauer the "final aim of all love intrigues, be they comic or tragic, is really of more importance than all other ends in human life. What it all turns upon is nothing less than the composition of the next generation. It is not the weal or woe of any one individual, but that of the human race to come, which is here at stake. Here Schopenhauer wrote:. With our knowledge of the complete unalterability both of character and of mental faculties, we are led to the view that a real and thorough improvement of the human race might be reached not so much from outside as from within, not so much by theory and instruction as rather by the path of generation.

Plato had something of the kind in mind when, in the fifth book of his Republic , he explained his plan for increasing and improving his warrior caste. If we could castrate all scoundrels and stick all stupid geese in a convent, and give men of noble character a whole harem , and procure men, and indeed thorough men, for all girls of intellect and understanding, then a generation would soon arise which would produce a better age than that of Pericles. In another context, Schopenhauer reiterated his eugenic thesis: "If you want Utopian plans, I would say: the only solution to the problem is the despotism of the wise and noble members of a genuine aristocracy, a genuine nobility, achieved by mating the most magnanimous men with the cleverest and most gifted women.

This proposal constitutes my Utopia and my Platonic Republic. As a consequence of his monistic philosophy, Schopenhauer was very concerned about animal welfare. For him the word "will" designates force, power, impulse, energy, and desire; it is the closest word we have that can signify both the essence of all external things and our own direct, inner experience. Since every living thing possesses will, humans and animals are fundamentally the same and can recognize themselves in each other.

Compassion for animals is intimately associated with goodness of character, and it may be confidently asserted that he who is cruel to living creatures cannot be a good man. Nothing leads more definitely to a recognition of the identity of the essential nature in animal and human phenomena than a study of zoology and anatomy. The assumption that animals are without rights and the illusion that our treatment of them has no moral significance is a positively outrageous example of Western crudity and barbarity.

Universal compassion is the only guarantee of morality. Schopenhauer went so far as to protest using the pronoun "it" in reference to animals because that led to treatment of them as though they were inanimate things. Schopenhauer was very attached to his succession of pet poodles. He criticized Spinoza 's [] belief that animals are a mere means for the satisfaction of humans. He was so impressed by its philosophy that he called it "the production of the highest human wisdom", and believed it contained superhuman concepts. Schopenhauer considered India as "the land of the most ancient and most pristine wisdom, the place from which Europeans could trace their descent and the tradition by which they had been influenced in so many decisive ways", [] and regarded the Upanishads as "the most profitable and elevating reading which [ It has been the solace of my life, and will be the solace of my death.

Schopenhauer was first introduced to Anquetil du Perron's translation by Friedrich Majer in Majer was a follower of Herder , and an early Indologist. Schopenhauer did not begin serious study of the Indic texts until the summer of Safranski maintains that, between and , Schopenhauer had another important cross-pollination with Indian thought in Dresden. This was through his neighbor of two years, Karl Christian Friedrich Krause. Krause was then a minor and rather unorthodox philosopher who attempted to mix his own ideas with ancient Indian wisdom.

Krause had also mastered Sanskrit , unlike Schopenhauer, and they developed a professional relationship. It was from Krause that Schopenhauer learned meditation and received the closest thing to expert advice concerning Indian thought. The view of things [ It is the alpha and omega of the oldest book in the world, the sacred Vedas , whose dogmatic part, or rather esoteric teaching, is found in the Upanishads. There, in almost every page this profound doctrine lies enshrined; with tireless repetition, in countless adaptations, by many varied parables and similes it is expounded and inculcated.

The book Oupnekhat Upanishad always lay open on his table, and he invariably studied it before going to bed. He called the opening up of Sanskrit literature "the greatest gift of our century", and predicted that the philosophy and knowledge of the Upanishads would become the cherished faith of the West. Schopenhauer noted a correspondence between his doctrines and the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. Thus three of the four "truths of the Buddha" correspond to Schopenhauer's doctrine of the will. For Schopenhauer, will had ontological primacy over the intellect ; desire is prior to thought. If I wished to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth, I should have to concede to Buddhism pre-eminence over the others.

In any case, it must be a pleasure to me to see my doctrine in such close agreement with a religion that the majority of men on earth hold as their own, for this numbers far more followers than any other. And this agreement must be yet the more pleasing to me, inasmuch as in my philosophizing I have certainly not been under its influence [emphasis added]. For up till , when my work appeared, there was to be found in Europe only a very few accounts of Buddhism.

Buddhist philosopher Keiji Nishitani sought to distance Buddhism from Schopenhauer. This actual world of what is knowable, in which we are and which is in us, remains both the material and the limit of our consideration. The argument that Buddhism affected Schopenhauer's philosophy more than any other Dharmic faith loses credence since he did not begin a serious study of Buddhism until after the publication of The World as Will and Representation in They are included in a recent case study that traces Schopenhauer's interest in Buddhism and documents its influence. Some traditions in Western esotericism and parapsychology interested Schopenhauer and influenced his philosophical theories.

He praised animal magnetism as evidence for the reality of magic in his On the Will in Nature , and went so far as to accept the division of magic into left-hand and right-hand magic , although he doubted the existence of demons. Schopenhauer grounded magic in the Will and claimed all forms of magical transformation depended on the human Will, not on ritual. This theory notably parallels Aleister Crowley 's system of magick and its emphasis on human will. Neoplatonism , including the traditions of Plotinus and to a lesser extent Marsilio Ficino , has also been cited as an influence on Schopenhauer.

In his student years, Schopenhauer went more often to lectures in the sciences than philosophy. He kept a strong interest as his personal library contained near to books of scientific literature at his death, and his works refer to scientific titles not found in the library. Many evenings were spent in the theatre, opera and ballet; Schopenhauer especially liked the operas of Mozart , Rossini and Bellini. As a polyglot, he knew German , Italian , Spanish , French , English, Latin and ancient Greek , and was an avid reader of poetry and literature. If Goethe had not been sent into the world simultaneously with Kant in order to counterbalance him, so to speak, in the spirit of the age, the latter would have been haunted like a nightmare many an aspiring mind and would have oppressed it with great affliction.

But now the two have an infinitely wholesome effect from opposite directions and will probably raise the German spirit to a height surpassing even that of antiquity. In philosophy, his most important influences were, according to himself, Kant, Plato and the Upanishads. If the reader has also received the benefit of the Vedas, the access to which by means of the Upanishads is in my eyes the greatest privilege which this still young century may claim before all previous centuries, if then the reader, I say, has received his initiation in primeval Indian wisdom, and received it with an open heart, he will be prepared in the very best way for hearing what I have to tell him. It will not sound to him strange, as to many others, much less disagreeable; for I might, if it did not sound conceited, contend that every one of the detached statements which constitute the Upanishads, may be deduced as a necessary result from the fundamental thoughts which I have to enunciate, though those deductions themselves are by no means to be found there.

Schopenhauer saw Bruno and Spinoza as philosophers not bound to their age or nation. Consequently, there is no place for God as creator of the world in their philosophy, but God is the world itself. Schopenhauer expressed regret that Spinoza stuck for the presentation of his philosophy with the concepts of scholasticism and Cartesian philosophy , and tried to use geometrical proofs that do not hold because of vague and overly broad definitions.

Bruno on the other hand, who knew much about nature and ancient literature, presented his ideas with Italian vividness, and is amongst philosophers the only one who comes near Plato's poetic and dramatic power of exposition. Schopenhauer noted that their philosophies do not provide any ethics, and it is therefore very remarkable that Spinoza called his main work Ethics. In fact, it could be considered complete from the standpoint of life-affirmation, if one completely ignores morality and self-denial. The importance of Kant for Schopenhauer, in philosophy as well as on a personal level, cannot be overstated. Kant's philosophy was the foundation of Schopenhauer's, and he had high praise for the Transcendental Aesthetic section of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.

Schopenhauer maintained that Kant stands in the same relation to philosophers such as Berkeley and Plato , as Copernicus to Hicetas , Philolaus , and Aristarchus : Kant succeeded in demonstrating what previous philosophers merely asserted. Schopenhauer writes about Kant's influence on his work in the preface to the second edition of The World as Will and Representation :. I have already explained in the preface to the first edition, that my philosophy is founded on that of Kant, and therefore presupposes a thorough knowledge of it. I repeat this here. For Kant's teaching produces in the mind of everyone who has comprehended it a fundamental change which is so great that it may be regarded as an intellectual new-birth.

It alone is able really to remove the inborn realism which proceeds from the original character of the intellect, which neither Berkeley nor Malebranche succeed in doing, for they remain too much in the universal, while Kant goes into the particular, and indeed in a way that is quite unexampled both before and after him, and which has quite a peculiar, and, we might say, immediate effect upon the mind in consequence of which it undergoes a complete undeception, and forthwith looks at all things in another light. Only in this way can any one become susceptible to the more positive expositions which I have to give. On the other hand, he who has not mastered the Kantian philosophy, whatever else he may have studied, is, as it were, in a state of innocence; that is to say, he remains in the grasp of that natural and childish realism in which we are all born, and which fits us for everything possible, with the single exception of philosophy.

In his study room, one bust was of Buddha , the other was of Kant. With my eyes I followed thee into the blue sky, And there thy flight dissolved from view. Alone I stayed in the crowd below, Thy word and thy book my only solace. Strangers on all sides surround me. The world is desolate and life interminable. Schopenhauer dedicated one fifth of his main work, The World as Will and Representation , to a detailed criticism of the Kantian philosophy.

Schopenhauer praised Kant for his distinction between appearance and the thing-in-itself , whereas the general consensus in German idealism was that this was the weakest spot of Kant's theory, [] since, according to Kant, causality can find application on objects of experience only, and consequently, things-in-themselves cannot be the cause of appearances. The inadmissibility of this reasoning was also acknowledged by Schopenhauer. He insisted that this was a true conclusion, drawn from false premises. Schelling and G. Hegel —were not respected by Schopenhauer. He argued that they were not philosophers at all, for they lacked "the first requirement of a philosopher, namely a seriousness and honesty of inquiry. Diatribes against the vacuity, dishonesty, pomposity, and self-interest of these contemporaries are to be found throughout Schopenhauer's published writings.

The following passage is an example:. All this explains the painful impression with which we are seized when, after studying genuine thinkers, we come to the writings of Fichte and Schelling, or even to the presumptuously scribbled nonsense of Hegel, produced as it was with a boundless, though justified, confidence in German stupidity. With those genuine thinkers one always found an honest investigation of truth and just as honest an attempt to communicate their ideas to others. Therefore whoever reads Kant, Locke, Hume, Malebranche, Spinoza, and Descartes feels elevated and agreeably impressed. This is produced through communion with a noble mind which has and awakens ideas and which thinks and sets one thinking. The reverse of all this takes place when we read the above-mentioned three German sophists.

An unbiased reader, opening one of their books and then asking himself whether this is the tone of a thinker wanting to instruct or that of a charlatan wanting to impress, cannot be five minutes in any doubt; here everything breathes so much of dishonesty. Schopenhauer deemed Schelling the most talented of the three and wrote that he would recommend his "elucidatory paraphrase of the highly important doctrine of Kant" concerning the intelligible character, if he had been honest enough to admit he was parroting Kant, instead of hiding this relation in a cunning manner.

Schopenhauer reserved his most unqualified damning condemnation for Hegel, whom he considered less worthy than Fichte or Schelling. Whereas Fichte was merely a windbag Windbeutel , Hegel was a "commonplace, inane, loathsome, repulsive, and ignorant charlatan. Schopenhauer remained the most influential German philosopher until the First World War. His legacy shaped the intellectual debate, and forced movements that were utterly opposed to him, neo-Kantianism and positivism , to address issues they would otherwise have completely ignored, and in doing so he changed them markedly.

But most of all Schopenhauer is famous for his influence on artists. Richard Wagner became one of the earliest and most famous adherents of the Schopenhauerian philosophy. Under the influence of Schopenhauer, Leo Tolstoy became convinced that the truth of all religions lies in self-renunciation. When he read Schopenhauer's philosophy, Tolstoy exclaimed "at present I am convinced that Schopenhauer is the greatest genius among men. It is the whole world in an incomparably beautiful and clear reflection. Jorge Luis Borges remarked that the reason he had never attempted to write a systematic account of his world view, despite his penchant for philosophy and metaphysics in particular, was because Schopenhauer had already written it for him.

Huysmans and George Santayana. Scholar Brian Yothers notes that Melville "marked numerous misanthropic and even suicidal remarks, suggesting an attraction to the most extreme sorts of solitude, but he also made note of Schopenhauer's reflection on the moral ambiguities of genius. Sergei Prokofiev , although initially reluctant to engage with works noted for their pessimism, became fascinated with Schopenhauer after reading Aphorisms on the Wisdom of Life in Parerga and Paralipomena. Friedrich Nietzsche owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading The World as Will and Representation and admitted that he was one of the few philosophers that he respected, dedicating to him his essay "Schopenhauer als Erzieher" [] one of his Untimely Meditations.

Early in his career, Ludwig Wittgenstein adopted Schopenhauer's epistemological idealism, and some traits of Schopenhauer's influence particularly Schopenhauerian transcendentalism can be observed in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. In later years, Wittgenstein became highly dismissive of Schopenhauer, describing him as an ultimately shallow thinker. Opposite to Russell on the foundations of mathematics, the Dutch mathematician L. Brouwer incorporated Kant's and Schopenhauer's ideas in the philosophical school of intuitionism , where mathematics is considered as a purely mental activity instead of an analytic activity wherein objective properties of reality are revealed.

Brouwer was also influenced by Schopenhauer's metaphysics, and wrote an essay on mysticism. Schopenhauer's philosophy has made its way into a novel, The Schopenhauer Cure , by American existential psychiatrist and emeritus professor of psychiatry Irvin Yalom. Schopenhauer's philosophy, and the discussions on philosophical pessimism it has engendered, has been the focus of contemporary thinkers such as David Benatar , Thomas Ligotti , and Eugene Thacker. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

German philosopher — For other uses, see Schopenhauer disambiguation. Frankfurt , German Confederation. Continental philosophy Post-Kantian philosophy Transcendental idealism disputed [1] [2] Metaphysical voluntarism [3] Philosophical pessimism. Main article: The World as Will and Representation. Main article: Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics. Main article: On the Basis of Morality. Main article: Arthur Schopenhauer's view on animal rights.

See also: Critique of the Kantian philosophy and Schopenhauer's criticism of Kant's schemata. Beiser reviews the commonly held position that Schopenhauer was a transcendental idealist and he rejects it: "Though it is deeply heretical from the standpoint of transcendental idealism, Schopenhauer's objective standpoint involves a form of transcendental realism , i. A world without a perceiver would in that case be an impossibility. But we can—he said—gain knowledge about Essential Reality for looking into ourselves, by introspection. This is one of many examples of the anthropic principle. The world is there for the sake of man. Schopenhauer, Philosophy and the Arts. Cambridge University Press. ISBN For Kant, the mathematical sublime, as seen for example in the starry heavens, suggests to imagination the infinite, which in turn leads by subtle turns of contemplation to the concept of God.

Schopenhauer's atheism will have none of this, and he rightly observes that despite adopting Kant's distinction between the dynamical and mathematical sublime, his theory of the sublime, making reference to the struggles and sufferings of struggles and sufferings of Will, is unlike Kant's. The World as Will and Representation. For the philosopher, these accounts of the lives of holy, self-denying men, badly as they are generally written, and mixed as they are with superstition and nonsense, are, because of the significance of the material, immeasurably more instructive and impor tant than even Plutarch and Livy. But the spirit of this development of Christianity is certainly nowhere so fully and powerfully expressed as in the writings of the German mystics, in the works of Meister Eckhard, and in that justly famous book Die Deutsche Theologie.

Einstein regarded his separation principle, descended from Schopenhauer's principium individuationis , as virtually an axiom for any future fundamental physics. Schopenhauer stressed the essential structuring role of space and time in individuating physical systems and their evolving states. This view implies that difference of location suffices to make two systems different in the sense that each has its own real physical state, independent of the state of the other. For Schopenhauer, the mutual independence of spatially separated systems was a necessary a priori truth. Beiser, "After Hegel: German Philosophy, — Like his great forebear, Dilthey believed that philosophy had first and foremost an ethical function, that its main purpose was to address 'the puzzle of the world'.

The Independent. Archived from the original on 9 April Retrieved 12 March Wittgenstein's Vienna. New York: Simon and Schuster. Kraus himself was no philosopher, even less a scientist. If Kraus's views have a philosophical ancestry, this comes most assuredly from Schopenhauer; for alone among the great philosophers, Schopenhauer was a kindred spirit, a man of philosophical profundity, with a strange talent for polemic and aphorism, a literary as weIl as philosophical genius. Schopenhauer, indeed, was the only philosopher who at all appealed to Kraus. Ludovici The prophet of anti-feminism". Retrieved 5 May Ettore Majorana: Scientific Papers.

His interest in philosophy, which had always been great, increased and prompted him to reflect deeply on the works of various philosophers, in particular Schopenhauer. Confessions of a Philosopher. Moritz Schlick. Once again, one has to understand Schlick's world conception, which he took over from Schopenhauer's world as representation and as will. Wiener Slavistisches Jahrbuch. Harrassowitz Verlag. ISSN JSTOR Essays and Aphorisms. Penguin Classics. An Introduction to Schopenhauer's Philosophy and its Origins. An Introduction to the History of Psychology 6th ed. Cengage Learning. Although Schopenhauer was an atheist, he realized that his philosophy of denial had been part of several great religions; for example, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism.

It is to this end that Schopenhauer's metaphysic of will and idea exists. Leeming; Kathryn Madden; Stanton Marlan, eds. Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, Volume 2. A more accurate statement might be that for a German—rather than a French or British writer of that time—Schopenhauer was an honest and open atheist. Friedrich Nietzsche. Chapter 7. Schopenhauer's words: 'Man can do what he wants, but he cannot will what he wants,[Der Mensch kann wohl tun, was er will, aber er kann nicht wollen, was er will]' accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others, even if they are rather painful to me. This awareness of the lack of free will keeps me from taking myself and my fellow men too seriously as acting and deciding individuals, and from losing my temper.

The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. Melville's Marginalia Online. Retrieved 1 September CMC Senior Theses. Paper Schopenhauer's The world as will and representation : a reader's guide. London: Continuum. OCLC Zalta ed. Zalta, Edward N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 19 March Payne Prize Essay on the Freedom of the Will. Schopenhauer: a Biography. Life of Arthur Schopenhauer. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. Germanic American Institute.

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