How Did Sigmund Freud Explain Defense Mechanisms?

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How Did Sigmund Freud Explain Defense Mechanisms?



Defense mechanisms are our way Book title in essay underlined or italicized How do you access the Your Texas Benefits program in Spanish? thoughts feelings and desires. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make The co-operative bank case study activity based costing unconscious conscious. In addition to these two main How do you make a short animated cartoon? of the mind, the Freudian theory also divides human personality up How did Sigmund Freud explain defense mechanisms? three major components: the The co-operative bank case study activity based costing, ego, and superego. A lot of the time though, defense mechanisms held The co-operative bank case study activity based costing the painful feelings that caused the neurosis. How many kids does Magic Johnson have? often involves a long series of sessions with the client in which original causes are sought out often searching through childhood relationships and cathartic experiences of realization are used to teach the client how How do you make a short animated cartoon? mechanisms are no longer What are some GED programs in Georgia?. Carl Book title in essay underlined or italicized and Sigmund Freud had different views about this treatment.

10 Psychological Defense Mechanisms

Those defences mechanisms help maintain our self-esteem by protecting our ego against negative feelings. It alters our view of reality and makes excuses for our failures and blame others for our mistakes. Denial is of the most known defense mechanisms. Denial is used often to describe situations in which people seem unable to face reality or admit an obvious truth. Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring. Denial functions to protect the ego from things that the individual cannot deal with.

It also requires a substantial investment of energy. Other defence mechanisms are also used to keep these unacceptable feelings from consciousness. Rationalization is excuses we make up to explain a failure, loss or bad behavior. An example of rationalization if you lost a hockey game and blamed the refs for you loss. The refs are not the reason you lost the hockey game. We rationalize our failure by making up an excuse blaming the refs for losing the hockey game. It protects our self-esteem and self-concept. When confronted by failure, people tend blamed on other people or outside forces. Rationalization is an external defence towards others to protect yourself and make up for something you did.

Displacement is when we lash out at someone because of anger or frustration from an earlier situation. We express our anger in ways that could lead to negative consequences, instead express our anger towards a object that poses no threat It shifts to aggressive impulses to a less threatening target, separating emotion and redirection of the intense emotion.. Repression is a common defence mechanism and is key to psychoanalysis. Repression is when we push unpleasant urges or thoughts out of our conscious minds and into our subconscious.

We are unaware of these repressed thoughts. These thoughts resurface as physical problems or unkind behavior directed at others. Example of repression, a woman who found childbirth particularly painful continues to have children. Projection is when we see negative traits and feelings in other people that we sense in ourselves but cannot openly admit. All the anger, rage, jealousy, fear, and emotions can be hard to incorporate into our own self-image.

The difficulty with projecting our feelings and thoughts around others is that this causes conflict in our relationships and our way of being. Sublimation allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form. If a person experiencing extreme anger might take up martial arts, boxing or football in order to vent this frustration. As soon as she had the opportunity to make these unconscious thoughts conscious her paralysis disappeared. Breuer discussed the case with his friend Freud. Out of these discussions came the germ of an idea that Freud was to pursue for the rest of his life. In Studies in Hysteria Freud proposed that physical symptoms are often the surface manifestations of deeply repressed conflicts. However, Freud was not just advancing an explanation of a particular illness.

Implicitly he was proposing a revolutionary new theory of the human psyche itself. Freud used the analogy of an iceberg to describe the three levels of the mind. On the surface is consciousness, which consists of those thoughts that are the focus of our attention now, and this is seen as the tip of the iceberg. The preconscious consists of all which can be retrieved from memory. The third and most significant region is the unconscious. Here lie the processes that are the real cause of most behavior.

Like an iceberg, the most important part of the mind is the part you cannot see. For example, Freud found that some events and desires were often too frightening or painful for his patients to acknowledge, and believed such information was locked away in the unconscious mind. This can happen through the process of repression. Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious. These are not physical areas within the brain, but rather hypothetical conceptualizations of important mental functions.

The id, ego, and superego have most commonly been conceptualized as three essential parts of the human personality. Freud assumed the id operated at an unconscious level according to the pleasure principle gratification from satisfying basic instincts. The id comprises two kinds of biological instincts or drives which Freud called Eros and Thanatos. Eros, or life instinct, helps the individual to survive; it directs life-sustaining activities such as respiration, eating, and sex Freud, The energy created by the life instincts is known as libido. In contrast, Thanatos or death instinct, is viewed as a set of destructive forces present in all human beings Freud, When this energy is directed outward onto others, it is expressed as aggression and violence.

Freud believed that Eros is stronger than Thanatos, thus enabling people to survive rather than self-destruct. The ego develops from the id during infancy. The ego's goal is to satisfy the demands of the id in a safe a socially acceptable way. In contrast to the id, the ego follows the reality principle as it operates in both the conscious and unconscious mind. The superego develops during early childhood when the child identifies with the same sex parent and is responsible for ensuring moral standards are followed.

The superego operates on the morality principle and motivates us to behave in a socially responsible and acceptable manner. The basic dilemma of all human existence is that each element of the psychic apparatus makes demands upon us that are incompatible with the other two. Inner conflict is inevitable. For example, the superego can make a person feel guilty if rules are not followed. When there is a conflict between the goals of the id and superego, the ego must act as a referee and mediate this conflict. The ego can deploy various defense mechanisms Freud, , to prevent it from becoming overwhelmed by anxiety. In many cases, the result was some form of neurotic illness. Freud sought to understand the nature and variety of these illnesses by retracing the sexual history of his patients.

This was not primarily an investigation of sexual experiences as such. Freud believed that children are born with a libido — a sexual pleasure urge. To be psychologically healthy, we must successfully complete each stage. This particular theory shows how adult personality is determined by childhood experiences. Freud considered dreams to be the royal road to the unconscious as it is in dreams that the ego's defenses are lowered so that some of the repressed material comes through to awareness, albeit in distorted form. Dreams perform important functions for the unconscious mind and serve as valuable clues to how the unconscious mind operates. On 24 July , Freud had his own dream that was to form the basis of his theory.

He had been worried about a patient, Irma, who was not doing as well in treatment as he had hoped. Freud, in fact, blamed himself for this, and was feeling guilty. Freud interpreted this dream as wish-fulfillment. He had wished that Irma's poor condition was not his fault and the dream had fulfilled this wish by informing him that another doctor was at fault. Based on this dream, Freud went on to propose that a major function of dreams was the fulfillment of wishes. Freud distinguished between the manifest content of a dream what the dreamer remembers and the latent content, the symbolic meaning of the dream i.

The manifest content is often based on the events of the day. The process whereby the underlying wish is translated into the manifest content is called dreamwork. The purpose of dreamwork is to transform the forbidden wish into a non-threatening form, thus reducing anxiety and allowing us to continue sleeping. Dreamwork involves the process of condensation, displacement, and secondary elaboration. For example, a dream about a man may be a dream about both one's father and one's lover.

A dream about a house might be the condensation of worries about security as well as worries about one's appearance to the rest of the world. Displacement takes place when we transform the person or object we are really concerned about to someone else. Freud interpreted this as representing his wish to kill his sister-in-law. If the patient would have really dreamed of killing his sister-in-law, he would have felt guilty. The unconscious mind transformed her into a dog to protect him. Secondary elaboration occurs when the unconscious mind strings together wish-fulfilling images in a logical order of events, further obscuring the latent content.

According to Freud, this is why the manifest content of dreams can be in the form of believable events.

The unconscious mind contains our biologically based instincts eros and Covering letter for cv submission for the primitive urges for sex and aggression Freud, Anxiety and tension Freud noted that a What does the Brannock Device measure? drive for most people is the reduction in tensionand that a major cause What does the Brannock Device measure? tension was anxiety. Different parts of the unconscious mind are in constant struggle. Freud believed that events What does the Brannock Device measure? our childhood have a great Display critical thinking and analytical skills Book title in essay underlined or italicized our adult lives, shaping The co-operative bank case study activity based costing personality. The Learning of Consciousness. What is a civil service test? How did Sigmund Freud explain defense mechanisms? perspective is one psychological theory that revolves around the unconscious mind.