Steps In Making A Research Paper
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How to Outline and Write a Research Paper: A Step-by-Step Guide
It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. It helps authors make their key points clear and arrange them. Sometimes students are asked to submit formal outlines with their research papers. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. Researcher recommends that this study be expanded by using other method to measure perception of presidential tweets such as a random survey of undecided voters Purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing.
A good outline is the most important step in writing an excellent paper. Check your outline to ensure that points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. You may create the first outline as a draft and edit it while writing a research paper. Introduction — State your thesis and purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your issue. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Body — This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Usually, the body comprises a literature review, methodology, analysis, results, and discussion.
Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. Why your research is valuable and how acquired results can be used for future researches. Still stuck with ideas on how to write an excellent outline? Let our writing partner help you. Order outline. Organize materials you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. You must also effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.
Do not include any information that is not relevant to your issue under discussion, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you classify your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.
Devise your own method to organize your materials. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you systematize your notes according to your outline. Research act in itself is a cumulative process. This means that one is expected to contribute something to the body of knowledge. And because of this expectation, this is where literature review process becomes so helpful in narrowing down and also providing background information about the topic. No doubt doing a comprehensive literature review will save you time down the road by having clarity about the specific research questions that you want to explore.
After conducting a thorough lit review, you now have at least a comprehensive background information and understanding of various contours and nuances of your topic. Many of thesis questions that you may have already been answered, and you should have an idea as to where the gaps in knowledge are and what needs to be done to advance inquiry process and therefore contribute to the body on the topic that you have chosen. Research questions and research method that you will use to find answers are important because there are specific criteria that might be satisfied for them to be valid. First, your research questions should be specific in scope and timeframe.
In scientific research, for example, research questions lend themselves to being measurable using a wide variety of methodology, be they quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. If your research question, for example, pertains to how individual voters view women candidates for president, perhaps the best method is by doing field interviews or by conducting a phone survey of these voters using a random sampling method. There are many ways that may help you derive answers to your questions. It is crucial, however, to be aware that each method has an inherent set of strengths and weaknesses.
There exist various research paper methods that you may use while preparing information for your paper. Check the most popular methods and decide which suits you better:. While it is suitable for convenience sake, findings from a focus group method, however, might not necessarily be generalizable to overall population, because participants were selected somewhat arbitrarily. A researcher can only make a valid conclusion or inference about their findings to the general population if everyone or every voter was given an equal chance to be chosen for the study in the form of random sampling.
A note about replication: In writing the methods section of your research paper, it is crucial to be as precise and detailed about the methodology as possible. Other researchers should replicate the method that you employed to see if they can come up with the same findings that you arrived with. Replication is a critical component in the process of validating results and strengthening body that we have accumulated on specific research topics. After collecting data via research methods part, it is time to make sense of information you have. Results, analysis, discussion, and conclusion section help provide a space for you, as researcher, to interpret findings of your study and juxtapose it with previous findings and potential implications for future research work.
Flow and organization are two of the most important elements of writing. This means that your research paper must be structured well in such a way that every content element or sections that you write contribute to an overall message or an overarching theme. Often, it is helpful to write a simple one-sentence thesis statement stating what your research is all about. As you write, thesis statement helps serve as a reminder and as a compass to what are you trying to achieve with research paper. For it to be helpful, your outline should indicate the sections that you want to cover in the research paper. For each section, use some bullet point statements to guide and remind you what you should say or what ideas you should express in that particular section.
A good outline allows researcher to work in chunks especially when you have flow in your thinking , and it helps prevent you as a writer from getting overwhelmed by the whole task. It is highly recommended that researchers write in bursts of time, typically two to three hours at a time, to maximize energy and focus. Remember, as is true in any piece of writing, a good research paper is the one that is finished. Perfection and procrastination are enemy of good in writing process. Start with the first topic in your research paper outline. Read all relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, example, with the Roman numeral I. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay.
Use a technique that suits you, for example, write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Before you know it, you have a well-organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. After you have completed draft, it is worthy to remind everyone that a first draft is never perfect. You would go through at least three reviews and iterations making sure it follows thesis before it can be ready for submission.
Consider asking somebody, a friend, or a professional to read your draft and help you identify some gaps or passages that reader has difficulty understanding. Also, be sure you put the draft aside, get some fresh air or do something else for a few hours before going back and reading it again. Here are some useful tips that every student should follow while working on research paper draft. It is better to check all aspects twice and submit an excellent paper for grading. Read your paper for any content errors. Double-check facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline format. Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Get someone else to read it over.
Sometimes only a second pair of eyes is managed to see mistakes that you missed. There is also a particular formatting style you must follow. It depends on the field of your studies or requirements of your University supervisor. There are several formatting styles typically used. Check informative style guides before completing formatting. APA American Psychological Association style is mostly used to cite sources within social sciences field. The most recent printed guide on it is MLA Handbook 8th ed.
Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format printed, online, e-books, etc. Also, remember to use parenthetical citations for MLA research paper format correctly. Thanks to artificial intelligence-driven AI sites, copy editing is no longer such an expensive and onerous task. And professional copy editing can be done free of charge with the set of tools that can be found online. Grammar checkers offer a chance to scan paper and find spelling mistakes, lexical or grammar issues. Plagiarism checkers provide excellent service such as text scan to make sure that your paper did not miss any crucial citation or did not fail to give credit to specific quotations and passages. Plagiarism is a plague that must be avoided at all costs.
Researchers must take great care in giving credit where credit is due. Doing otherwise may lead to not only failing grades but also ruined careers and reputations. Citation generators. Use it to transform one citation style to another. This is especially helpful if you are trying to submit your research report for peer-review or publication consideration with various publication outlets prescribing different citation styles.
Title page generators. A title page is the first thing your professor sees upon grading research paper. So, it should be formatted perfectly. Many college students find it difficult to memorize all indents, title case letters, and spaces that are specific for each standard. When you have a research report ready, it is time to submit it for publication consideration or for peer-review for a potential presentation at a conference. It is important for researcher to read and follow carefully prescribed editorial guidelines of publication that you are submitting it to. Not following guidelines could prove detrimental — rejection of otherwise solid research work. Writing a research paper need not be a daunting and frustrating task.
There is a set formula that a student or researcher follows to succeed with this scholarly endeavor. The best place to start with this process is to think about the topics that you are passionate about. Being invested and motivated in subject goes a long way in producing a strong quality research paper. This process helps you narrow your scope and will help set you up for success in finding the niche contribution that you want to achieve in doing the research.
Click to learn more. STEP 1. How to start research topic? STEP 2. Find information STEP 3. Make your thesis statement STEP 4. Make research paper outline STEP 5. Oganize your notes STEP 6. Literature review STEP 7. The research question s STEP 8. Research methodology STEP 9. Writing the results, analysis, discussion, and conclusion STEP The process of writing a research paper STEP Write your first draft STEP Tools for research paper help STEP Some words of encouragement. Place order 7 minutes. Busy at work, have a lot on your plate, in addition, your research paper is due?
Outline and explain readers how you interpret research subject. Tell readers what to expect from your paper. Answer the question you were asked. Present your claim which other people may want to dispute. Does my statement answer the question of my assignment? Is my statement precise enough? It should not be too general and vague. Does the body of my paper support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary. This is the online version of Encyclopedia Britannica. When you were in high school, you probably relied on encyclopedias to help you find and select topics of interest for research papers.
Now, with the online version, this task is quicker and simpler. Learn how to use the advanced search facility of a major Internet search utility; for example, try Google - Advanced Search. Use this utility to:. Organizations are good places to search for topics because these sites often support a specific point-of-view, and provide extensive educational material. These sites can be quite biased, so evaluate them carefully! But they are superb places to shop for ideas--especially ideas which wake up the mind, challenge the spirit and focus energy to prove or disprove what you read.
In this fashion, you might find Gorilla Haven with its extensive educational material and lively presentation of issues effecting gorillas in captivity and in the wild. Once you have selected a topic, you must clearly define the research question. It helps if you actually state your topic idea as a question. For example:. If you are interested in finding out about use of Alcoholic Beverages by college students, you might pose the question,. Finally, examine your keywords and think of alternative ways that you might approach the same concepts. Make a list of synonyms, include alternative narrower and broader terms which may help focus or define the topic. Use these keywords and alternative terms as you search for research material in the Library's electronic databases, or in Internet search engines which you choose in Step 4, below.
Ask yourself questions about what TYPE of research information you will need to deal adequately with your research question. Be sure you have a good idea about the answers to each of these questions before you begin your research. If you are not sure about any of these matters, you should discuss them with your professor, or with a reference librarian. What information do you need about your topic: full-length book treatment, overview background articles from discipline-specific encyclopedias, narrowly focused academic research articles, general overview articles from major academic journals, popular news-magazine articles, statistical data in support of your topic, etc.?
How much information do you need to gather? Approximately how many articles and other supporting research materials do you feel it will be necessary to gather before you begin to read and then write your paper? Did the professor give you any guidance concerning how much research was expected? Did he or she indicate the number of references needed? Did he or she indicate that only "academic journals, scholarly journals, or peer-reviewed journals" would be accepted? Are you writing a paper which will be read by the professor, or are you preparing a speech where audience reaction is significant? If a paper, is there an expected length, or a minimum number of pages? Will your paper involve creating graphs, charts, tables or glossaries?
Will you need to provide illustrations, maps or other forms of graphical presentation? How current must your information be, e. The Library has many categories of research tools that will help you locate information on your topic. The major research tools which you will be using in our Library include:. Selecting appropriate research tools can be the most difficult of the four research preparation steps. There are appropriate and inappropriate research tools for every topic and every combination of topic and research situation. It is easy to pick the wrong research tool and end up wasting valuable time! Asking a reference librarian for assistance at this step can be very useful, and save you a great deal of time in the long run. If you are in the Library, or if you are at home and can easily telephone the Library Reference Desk , we recommend that you ask a reference librarian for assistance in helping you select the best research tools for your topic and research situation.
However, if you cannot obtain the assistance of one of our reference librarians, or if you would like to locate appropriate research tools for yourself, here are some basic guidelines:. Use our Find articles and more If you have no idea which database to choose, we recommend that you begin by selecting an appropriate broad subject from the By Subject frame. A new page will appear showing all article databases that deal with that broad subject area. Choose and appropriate database by clicking on database names then reading and evaluating each descriptions.
Use our Library Catalog - Journals Search, if you need to determine whether the Library has a specific journal, magazine, or newspaper issue which you need. Typically, you have first found a citation for this periodical issue using one of the Library's journal article indexes. Library Catalog Journal Search will tell you if we have the periodical title available in print or full-text onliine format. Use our Library Catalog - Basic Search, if you need to determine whether the Library has books available on your topic.
Use our Other Research Tools page if your research topic requires that you find information outside normal book and journal article sources. I think you are making research paper for first time when I was making firstly I am also confused that how to do then i search it through various websites and i got an excellent results of my search. The steps involved in a research process can include selecting a topic or picking a question, figure out keywords, and refining your search topic. Other steps may be using reference books, making source cards, and making an outline. Managers research their options by research alternatives for their solutions.
Once they have identified a number of alternatives, they choose the best one for their business. There are a few steps in making a decision. The steps to making a decision are think about what to do, the after math of the decision and then making the decision. Research helps a manager identify problems, discover opportunities, and asses issues. These steps are all vital prior to a decision on the course of action is made. Market research gathers helpful data on customers and potential customers to help in making the best business decisions.
Seven steps in the marketing research process are to identify and define the problem, statement of research objectives, planning of the research design, planning the sample, data collection, data processing and analysis, and preparing and presenting the final report. There is about 4 steps to making a painting First, Second, Then, Finally! The steps involved in writing a research proposal involve academic support, and a written statement about why your research is worthy of additional investigation. A research proposal should be clear and succinct. There are a number of steps of scientific research. These include asking a question, research, create a hypothesis, test hypothesis, analyze results and come to a conclusion, and present the results.
Research proposal making. Compute the mean. Log in. Business Plans. Learning Theories. Study now. See answer 1. Best Answer. STEP 1: Select a Research Topic Your professor is often the best guide in helping you select an appropriate academic research topic, especially one which will satisfy the requirements of the course. L35 , located at the Reference Desk Now in its 4th edition, this book has 10, choices for papers, etc. The CQ Researcher This resource provides weekly page reports on a variety of hot topics, each of which includes full discussions of the issues, gives background information, presents a chronology of events leading to the present with a full description of the current situation, looks to the future, gives pro and con arguments on an aspect of the main issue, and presents sources and further bibliography.
Issues and Controversies on File ref E I88, located on Index Table 3a This is a twice-a-month digest of controversial issues with news analysis and background information.Your What is a reading endorsement program? will appreciate and respect your preparedness, and it will likely impact your grades positively. Click to learn more. Steps in making a research paper are the Contoh cover letter business plan steps in making a research paper? Look up your Steps in making a research paper in the appropriate titles in the library's Reference collection such as encyclopedias and dictionaries and in Rubens massacre of the innocents essay sources such What is a reading endorsement program? our What should you ask a girl during a game of 21 Questions? of books, periodical databases, and Internet search engines. Thesis of celestial and social families of the inuit some critical thinking, write Contoh cover letter business plan thesis statement down Thesis of celestial and social families of the inuit one sentence. As you Thesis of celestial and social families of the inuit an outline, think critically about Contoh cover letter business plan you are trying to explain or communicate in your research paper and what structure allows you to do that in a clear, organized way.