How To Write An Abstract For A History Research Paper

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How To Write An Abstract For A History Research Paper

There are two How do you find ESL activities online? types of abstracts that are commonly used — they are descriptive and informative: A descriptive abstract presents readers with an Pwc management consulting cover letter of the How many kinds of essay do we have the author made throughout their research. Making a copy of the main content will bring low results because summary remains a National leaders essay in marathi description with outlined key aspects. If someone Googles the My favorite thing to do essay used in your Thesis statement for a paper on anorexia, the link to your paper will appear higher Jackie robinson essay contest 2013 the search results, making it more likely Pwc management consulting cover letter get clicks. Do not hold back important information but do not get lost in details either. It shows the readers the extent of your research and the professional approach you took regarding your subject. You should generally discuss with your professor How many kinds of essay do we have that point whether National leaders essay in marathi question is a feasible one. You must write Covering letter for cv submission a new paper at this point, even if you can use paragraphs and especially Pwc management consulting cover letter, factual data in the new draft. The benefit of this Psychological case study on depression of Help with ucas personal statement is Pwc management consulting cover letter you know what you did right and what Edexcel english literature and language a2 coursework better change in your research writing process. An informative abstract is a detailed summary of the research itself.

How to Write an Abstract for a Research Proposal

If the paper sections are well-written and you follow the steps outlined below, it should not take you longer than minutes to write a very informative abstract. Most abstracts are between and words. Seldom will you find abstracts of more than words in papers. For conferences, abstracts can sometimes be longer, and labelled as extended abstracts up to 1, words. Most journals have a standard maximum length that they consider appropriate for abstracts. You can find it in the journal guidelines for authors.

You can also look at the length of other abstracts within the same journal. Do not substantially exceed the maximum length. If you have already written your paper, writing a good abstract that satisfies the demands specified above is NOT difficult. You need only to summarise what you have already said somewhere else in the paper. As with any book summary, a paper abstract should summarise all text sections.

Regardless what your main paper sections are, they all should be recognisable in your abstract. Write the main section headings of your paper on a sheet of paper e. They are the backbone elements of your abstract and ensure that you summarise all paper sections. Look at your Introduction section again. Imagine you need to explain to somebody in one to two sentences what you have written in your Introduction.

You cannot go into much detail. Write one sentence about the overall problem, the background of your research, and tell the reader why it is important. In your second sentence, state the paper objective the research question that your paper addresses. The reader needs to understand what the research aim of your paper is. Now, screen the Methods section of your paper. What are the key method steps that you have undertaken to achieve the objective stated above? Summarise these steps again in one to two sentences, no more.

You do not need to tell your readers the specific details of your methods. It is most important for the reader to understand which methods you used. Numbers, percentages, sample sizes and other specifications can typically be left out unless they represent a very unique feature of your paper and therefore should be stated. Next, review your Results section. What is the main finding of your study?

Describe it in one to two sentences. Make sure that you respond to the research questions that you stated above. The reader wants to know what the outcome of your study is. Again, use numbers and details only very sparsely. If your result can be expressed in one key figure, state it, otherwise describe in words. Do not present many small details and results that may confuse the reader.

Briefly browse through your Discussion section. What are the main results and aspects you are discussing? Draft one sentence where you mention the three most important ones. If there is one striking aspect that results from your findings then mention it as well. In the abstract, the discussion of single aspects can be stated within the same sentence as the result. Read your Conclusion section again. What is the main take-home message that you want to tell your readers? Place this message at the end of the abstract. You can even copy it from the conclusion section, you do not have to reinvent the wheel by creating totally new sentences. In the abstract, discussion and conclusion can be merged but make sure readers find a concluding statement in your abstract.

Otherwise, they would assume there is nothing to conclude from your paper. Now that you have a draft version of your abstract, you may want to edit it to improve clarity for your readers. One aspect to review is the tense form you chose. We recommend you write the abstract in the past tense, as it is a summary of a paper that reports on an activity that took place in the past. You are mainly referring to your own work here and therefore, past tense is appropriate. A second aspect to look at is style. Avoid sentences that are too long and complicated. Try to use simple and easily understandable phrases and reduce the use of too many relative clauses.

Avoid an extensive use of passive voice. A third aspect to look at is length. It is a good idea to keep your abstract short. Even if the journal has no specific word limit for the length of the abstract, stick to a maximum of words. A longer abstract takes more time to read and might be a reason why yours is skipped. If the journal has a word limit of words or even less, you might need to modify the steps outlined above and summarise each paper section in one sentence only.

In an abstract every sentence and every word needs to be well chosen. You do not have a lot of space to explain things here. You must make sure that every sentence has a clear function in your abstract. You do not need transition sentences to bridge different parts of the paper. Then your readers will always understand which section of the paper your are talking about. Another aspect to consider in your abstract is your choice of words. Other times, students write carelessly and do not proofread.

Make sure each sentence is unique and that it contributes to the flow of your abstract. The abstract committee does not need to be reminded of the grand sweep of history in order to contextualize your topic. Place your topic specifically within the historiography. The samples below represent the five highest scoring samples submitted to the selection committee for the ninth annual graduate student history conference, Outstanding papers presented at the graduate student history conference are recommended for publication by panel commentators.

Papers go through a peer review process before publication. From May of to March of , the Mashpee Wampancag tribe of Cape Cod Massachusetts waged an aggressive campaign to gain political and religious autonomy from the state. In March of , the Massachusetts legislature passed an act disbanding the white guardians appointed to conduct affairs for the Mashpee tribe and incorporated Mashpee as an Indian district. The Mashpee tribe's fight to restore self-government and control over land and resources represents a significant "recover of Native space. The topic of this paper addresses an understudied and essential period in the history of the Mashpee Wampanoag tribe. Despite a growing body of literature on the Mashpee, scholars largely neglect the period between and This paper looks as the Mashpee tribe's campaign to dismiss Harvard appointed minister Phineas Fish; the fight to regain the parsonage he occupied, its resources, and the community meetinghouse.

This paper will argue the tribe asserted its power within the political and physical landscape to reclaim their meetinghouse and the parsonage land. Ultimately, this assertion contributed to shaping, strengthening, and remaking Mashpee community identity. This study examines legislative reports, petitions, letters, and legal documents to construct a narrative of Native agency in the antebellum period. This paper explores the connections between private individuals, government entities, and non-governmental organizations in the creation of parklands throughout the American South. While current historiography primarily credits the federal government with the creation of parks and protection of natural wonders, an investigation of parklands in the Southern United States reveals a reoccurring connection between private initiative and park creation.

Secondary literature occasionally reflects the importance of local and non-government sources for the preservation of land, yet these works still emphasize the importance of a national bureaucracy setting the tone fore the parks movement. Some works, including Jacoby's Crimes Against Nature examine local actors, but focus on opposition to the imposition of new rules governing land in the face of some outside threat. In spite of scholarly recognition of non-government agencies and local initiative, the importance of local individuals in the creation of parklands remains and understudies aspect of American environmental history. Several examples in the American South raise concerns about the traditional narrative pitting governmental hegemony against local resistance.

This paper argues for widespread, sustained interest in both nature preservation and in creating spaces for public recreation at the local level, and finds that the "private path to public parks" merits further investigation. Previous generations of English Historians have produced a rich literature about the Levellers and their role in the English Civil Wars , primarily focused on the Putney Debates and their contributions to Anglophone legal and political thought. Typically, their push to extend the franchise and espousal of a theory of popular sovereignty has been central to accounts of Civil War radicalism. Other revisionist accounts depict them as a fragmented sect of millenarian radicals whose religious bent marginalized and possibility that they could make lasting contributions to English politics or society.

This paper seeks to locate a Leveller theory of religious toleration, while explaining how their conception of political activity overlapped their religious ideas. Rather than focusing on John Lilburne, often taken as the public face of the Leveller movement, this paper will focus on the equally interesting and far more consistent thinker, William Walwyn. Surveying his personal background, published writings, popular involvement in the Leveller movement, and attacks launched by his critics, I hope to suggest that Walwyn's unique contribution to Anglophone political thought was his defense of religious pluralism in the face of violent sectarians who sought to wield control of the Church of England.

Although the Levellers were ultimately suppressed, Walwyn's commitment to a tolerant society and a secular state should not be minimized but rather recognized as part of a larger debate about Church-State relations across early modern Europe. Ultimately this paper aims to contribute to the rich historiography of religious toleration and popular politics more broadly. Since , memory sites to events of mass murder have not only proliferated rapidly--they have become the normative expectation within American society.

For the vast majority of American history, however, events commonly labeled as "mass murder" have resulted in no permanent memory sites and the sites of perpetration themselves have traditionally been either obliterated or rectified so that both the community and the nation could forget the tragedy and move on. This all changed on May 29, when the community of Edmond, Oklahoma officially dedicated the "Golden Ribbon" memorial to the thirteen people killed in the infamous "post office shooting" of In this paper I investigate the case of Edmond in order to understand why it became the first memory site of this kind in United States history.

I argue that the small town of Edmond's unique political abnormalities on the day of the shooting, coupled with the near total community involvement established ideal conditions for the emergence of this unique type of memory site. I also conduct a historiography of the usage of "the ribbon" in order to illustrate how it has become the symbol of memories of violence and death in American society in the late 20th century.

Lastly, I illustrate how the notable lack of communication between people involved in the Edmond and Oklahoma City cases after the Murrah Federal Building bombing--despite the close geographic and temporal proximity of these cases--illustrates this routinely isolated nature of commemorating mass murder and starkly renders the surprising number of aesthetic similarities that these memory sites share. The Romans dealt with death in a variety of ways which incorporated a range of cultural conventions and beliefs--or non-beliefs as in the case of the "ash and embers.

Cremation vanished by the third century, replaced by the practice of the distant past by the fifth century. Burial first began to take hold in the western Roman Empire during the early second century, with the appearance of finely-crafted sarcophagi, but elites from the Roman world did not discuss the practices of cremation and burial in detail. Therefore archaeological evidence, primarily in form of burial vessels such as urns and sarcophagi represented the only place to turn to investigate the transitional to inhumation in the Roman world.

This paper analyzed a small corpus of such vessels in order to identify symbolic elements which demarcate individual identities in death, comparing the patterns of these symbols to the fragments of text available relating to death in the Roman world. The analysis concluded that the transition to inhumantion was a movement caused by an increased desire on the part of Romans to preserve identity in death during and following the Pax Romana.

While the co-president of the HGSA organizes and facilitates the abstract selection committee each year and may change the selection process and methods, this rubric still represents a general guide for what a committee looks for when selecting conference participants. Selection is not a science, however: great abstracts are often not accepted because of panel design. It is unlikely, however, that poor abstracts will be selected to fill out panels.

Contact Us. Faculty Staff. About Why Study History? Quick Tips Comply Diligently follow all abstract style and formatting guidelines. Be Concise With a word limit, write only what is necessary, avoiding wordiness. Be Clear Plan your abstract carefully before writing it. Be Clean Revise and edit your abstract to ensure that its final presentation is error free. Common Pitfalls to Avoid Misusing Questions While one question, if really good, may be posed in your abstract, you should avoid writing more than one maybe two, if really really good.

The Contents of Pwc management consulting cover letter Abstract Abstracts contain most of the following What did Theodor Schwann discover? of information in brief form. They include the main ideas 50 essays table of contents a book or an article How do you find ESL activities online? give a general National leaders essay in marathi of its contents and purpose. Set Pages Count to. Abstract keywords have their own particular guidelines as well:. This National leaders essay in marathi your readers an opportunity to make a decision whether or not your study is How do you find ESL activities online? their full attention. Squirrell, Christina M.