Positive Effects Of Abortion Essays
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How Texas’ anti-abortion law is having long-term impacts on women
Peer Review reports. Women report having abortions for a variety of reasons related to achieving personal life goals. Another national study conducted in among abortion patients found that the primary reasons for abortion are to mitigate the effects of unintended pregnancy on life course plans [ 2 ]. Specifically, among the top reasons women reported having an abortion were: a baby would dramatically change their lives, that they could not afford a baby now, that they did not want to be a single mother or had problems with their relationship, and that they were not ready for a child or another child.
Many of these reasons suggest that women felt that carrying the unintended pregnancy to term would interfere with their plans and that abortion would help them achieve their personal goals. Kirkman and colleagues reviewed the literature on reasons women have abortions. Several legal scholars and philosophers have used a gender equality framework to support abortion and reproductive rights [ 4 , 5 ].
The gender equality framework contends that the right to abortion is necessary to ensure equality between men and women. Popular support for abortion is often based on a desire for women to have access to life opportunities [ 7 ]. For example, a 2-year longitudinal U. Similarly, a year longitudinal study in New Zealand examined the extent to which abortion mitigated educational, economic, and social disadvantages associated with pregnancy among women less than age 21 [ 9 ]. The study found that compared to young women who had unintended pregnancies and carried to term and young women who did not have unintended pregnancies, young women who obtained abortions were more likely to achieve educational milestones.
However, there were no differences found in achievement of economic or relationship milestones. The study also found that family, social, and educational characteristics were more likely to explain subsequent life outcomes than whether the woman had an abortion. Both of these studies had a narrow focus—they looked at adolescent women and used predetermined goals such as high school graduation. The one U. Therefore, findings from that study may not be generalizable to the current U. Probably the greatest weakness of these studies, is that they did not include appropriate comparison groups.
Women choosing to have an abortion after an unintended pregnancy may be systematically different than those who never had an unintended pregnancy or those who chose to carry to term. Such unobserved factors may confound any effects found between choosing abortion and achieving life milestones. This study overcomes these methodological weaknesses by comparing two groups of women seeking abortion; women obtaining a wanted abortion compared to women denied a wanted abortion. First, all one-year plans were categorized and it was determined whether each plan expressed a positive goal for the coming year aspirational.
It was assessed whether women who were able to have a wanted abortion were more likely to report an aspirational one-year plan than women denied an abortion. Second, it was assessed whether women who were able to have a wanted abortion were more likely to achieve these aspirational one-year plans one year later. The Turnaway Study is a 5-year longitudinal study of women seeking abortion. The study was designed to assess a variety of outcomes of receiving an abortion compared with carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term. All participants provided informed consent. From to , the Turnaway Study recruited women from 30 abortion facilities across the United States.
Study sites were identified using the National Abortion Federation membership directory and by referral. Sites were selected based on their gestational age limits to perform an abortion procedure, where each facility had the latest gestational limit of any facility within miles. Gestational age limits ranged from 10 weeks to the end of the second trimester. Facilities performed over 2, abortions a year on average [ 10 ]. They were located in 21 states distributed relatively evenly across the country. For this analysis, the Turnaway group was divided into Parenting Turnaways and Non-Parenting Turnaways which included Turnaways who subsequently had an abortion elsewhere, reported that they had miscarried, or placed the child for adoption.
Women were eligible for participation if they sought an abortion within the gestational limits for each of the study groups, spoke English or Spanish, and were aged 15 years or older. Further details on recruitment and methods can be found elsewhere [ 12 , 13 ]. After the baseline survey, participants were contacted for a follow-up phone interview every six months for five years. Turnaway Study data for this analysis come from interviews done at baseline one week , six months, and one year after they were recruited at their abortion-seeking visit. When participants could not be reached, researchers called each day for up to 5 days. If she still could not be reached, researchers sent up to 3 follow-up letters by mail or email according to her stated contact preferences and continued to call at the same frequency for a maximum of 10 sequential days.
Respondents were permitted to provide as long a response as desired. The 6-month and one-year follow-up interviews included questions about whether they were going to school, whether they were working full or part time, what they did for work, their personal and household income, their household composition, their relationships, their children, their life satisfaction, and their emotions regarding the abortion. These items were used to assess whether women achieved their one-year plans.
Many women reported multiple one-year plans. The Other category included vague plans, plans for personal growth, car ownership, health and other plans that did not fit into one of the other eight topics. Then, the outlook of the plan was determined—whether it was positive, negative or neutral. This determination was based on the tone of the statement and the qualifiers used. If determination was unclear, the plan was categorized as neutral. Two researchers reviewed each plan. Identification of a plan as positive or negative required both researchers agreeing. Finally, survey items in the six-month and one-year interviews that would indicate achievement of the plan were identified.
Some specific plans required all co-authors to discuss and agree upon the meaning of the plan and whether our interview items were sufficient to measure achievement. The exact timing for residential moves could not be determined so when a plan involved a residential move, she was considered to have achieved the goal if there was evidence that she moved by the second year of the study.
First, sample was described, comparing the socio-demographic characteristics of each group to the Turnaway-Parenting group. For all analyses, mixed-effects regression models that included random effects for facility were used, and p -values that adjust for the clustering of participants within each site are presented. The Turnaway-Parenting group was the reference category for all comparisons.
Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression was used to assess differences in proportions among the study groups. Finally, two mixed-effects logistic regression models were conducted: The first modeled the likelihood of having an aspirational one-year goal and the second modeled the likelihood of having an aspirational goal and achieving it. The unit of analysis was one-year plans and because some women reported multiple plans, mixed-effects models were used to account for clustering by woman and within each site. Overall, A total of women completed a baseline interview 8 days after seeking an abortion. Three women in the Near-Limit abortion group and First-Trimester group were excluded because they reported that they chose not to have an abortion after agreeing to participate in the study, leaving a final sample of participants at baseline.
The final sample of participants in this analysis was The only significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics between the Near-Limit Abortion group and the Parenting Turnaway group among those with one year follow up data were age and parity see Table 1. Parenting Turnaways were younger and less likely to have previous children than Near-Limits. Because each respondent could give multiple one-year plans, the respondents reported a total of 1, plans.
Among all participants, plans were distributed among the following themes: Educational The majority of one-year plans were aspirational The following are examples of typical aspirational one-year plans in each category each quoted clause represents a different participant :. The following are examples of typical neutral one-year plans in each category:. The following are examples of typical negative one-year plans in each category:. It will be very difficult for me.
I think it will be a little bit more challenging. One-year plans were significantly more likely to be aspirational among First Trimester The only other significant predictor of having an aspirational plan was marital status with married women less likely to have positive one-year plans than unmarried women Among the 1, total aspirational plans across study groups, it was possible to assess whether Achievement of Among the aspirational plans that were measurable, There was no difference by study group in the achievement of aspirational plans among women who reported them—Parenting Turnaways: Among the measurable aspirational plans, women were most likely to achieve child-related plans Women were also highly likely to achieve their financial They were least likely to achieve their educational There were no significant differences in achievement within each plan type by study group.
This study found that women who were denied an abortion were less likely to have aspirational one-year plans than those who obtained an abortion. Those who were denied an abortion were more likely to have neutral or negative expectations for their future. Whether or not a person has aspirational plans is indicative of her hope for the future. Without such plans or hopes, she misses out on opportunities to achieve milestones in life.
These findings suggest that shortly after being denied an abortion, many Turnaways may have scaled back their one year plans knowing that they were going to have to carry an unwanted pregnancy to term. Turnaways likely changed their one year plans in two ways after learning of being denied an abortion: First, they often incorporated their forthcoming child into their aspirational one-year plans; these child-related goals were often achieved simply by carrying the pregnancy to term.
Turnaways were significantly less likely to have vocational goals compared to women who obtained an abortion, likely because employment-related goals felt unattainable while parenting a newborn. Second, women who were denied a wanted abortion were adjusting to the idea of carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term and likely changed from having more aspirational one-year plans to more neutral or negative expectations for the future. The greater focus on relationship goals among women in the Near-Limit group may reflect their desires for new and better relationships; women who have an abortion may feel free to leave poor relationships compared to women who are going to have a child with the man involved in the pregnancy.
Indeed, as reported in other papers from these data, one-third of participants reported their partner as a reason to have an abortion, including poor relationships and undesirable characteristics for fatherhood [ 14 ] and women denied an abortion were slower to end a relationship with the man involved in the pregnancy compared to Near-Limits who received their wanted abortion [ 15 ]. In addition to the straightforward goals of gaining employment or education, many women mentioned personal psychosocial goals they wanted to achieve. A strength of this study is that many points of data on a wide variety of psychosocial and emotional outcomes were available, including life satisfaction, anxiety, and depression allowing us to assess achievement in goals related to mood and happiness which were relatively common.
Future studies should aim to measure life stability as well as other emotional outcomes to understand how they are affected by pregnancy decisions. A strength of the study was the use of appropriate comparison groups to understand the effects of abortion. All of the women in our sample had unintended pregnancies and all sought abortion. Comparing those who were denied an abortion to those who received a wanted abortion allows us to control for any unobserved characteristics that would be associated with abortion-seeking for example, the life circumstances that brought women to their abortion decision.
In addition, confounders thought to affect our outcome measures were controlled for. While most women in all groups had positive one-year plans, fewer than half of the goals were achieved within one year. In other words, many women overestimated what they could achieve in one year. This study has several limitations. First, the Turnaway study is limited to fewer than one thousand women and many women who were invited to participate declined. Additionally, due to sample size limitations, the analysis was unable to determine achievement by specific theme of the goal. Another limitation is that the analysis was unable to evaluate whether all goals were met and for some goals, measurement may have been imprecise, for example, the timing of residential moves.
Finding the Positives in an Unplanned Pregnancy. Financial Assistance for Unplanned Pregnancy. Maternity Homes and Where to Find Them. Finding Good Unplanned Pregnancy Counseling. Unplanned Pregnancy Movies, Songs and Books. Unplanned Pregnancy Quotes. Unplanned Pregnancy FAQ. Your Relationships. Married and Facing an Unplanned Pregnancy. Fathers in Unplanned Pregnancy. Unplanned Pregnancy in a New Relationship. The Facts About Unplanned Pregnancy. Unplanned Pregnancy Statistics. Causes of Unplanned Pregnancy. Possible Effects of Unplanned Pregnancy. How to Prevent Unplanned Pregnancy. Pros and Cons of Unplanned Pregnancy. Supporting Women Through Unplanned Pregnancy. Advice for Parents of Pregnant Teenagers.
Advice for Men Facing an Unplanned Pregnancy. Supporting a Friend Facing an Unplanned Pregnancy. Unplanned Pregnancy in Difficult Circumstances. Pregnant in Prison. Pregnant and Addicted. Pregnant and Homeless. Pregnant in College. Unplanned Pregnancy by Age. Unplanned Pregnancy as a Teenager. Unplanned Pregnancy in 20s. Unplanned Pregnancy in 30s. Unplanned Pregnancy in 40s. Unplanned Pregnancy in 50s. Deciding to Parent. Am I Ready for a Baby? Deciding to Become a Parent. The Realities of Single Parenting. Your Parenting Support Team. Am I Ready for Another Baby? Preparing for Parenthood. Preparing for Baby Month-by-Month Timeline for Preparing for Baby. Checklist to Prepare for Baby. Financially Preparing for Baby.
Preparing for Second Baby. Parenting Tips. Types of Parenting Styles. Tips for First-Time Parents. How to Bond with Your Baby. How to Feed a Baby. How to Bathe Your Baby. How to Swaddle a Baby. Baby Health and Safety. Baby-Proofing Your Home. Holding a Newborn Baby. Common Baby Illnesses. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Baby Sleep Safety. The First Year. Developmental Stages of Your Child. Caring for a Newborn. Caring for a 1-Month-Old. Caring for a 2-Month-Old. Caring for a 3-Month-Old. Caring for a 4-Month-Old. Caring for a 5-Month-Old. Caring for a 6-Month-Old. Caring for a 7-Month-Old. Caring for an 8-Month-Old. Caring for a 9-Month-Old. Caring for a Month-Old. Caring for an Month-Old. How Adoption Works.
How to Place a Baby for Adoption. How to Make an Adoption Plan. Adoption Services. Important Adoption Paperwork. Hospital Adoption Process. Open Adoption. Requirements for Adoption. Choosing Adoption as a Teen. Placing Siblings for Adoption. Questions About Adoption. What are My Adoption Rights? Adoption FAQ. Making Your Adoption Decision.
Thinking About Adoption. Pros and Cons of Choosing Adoption. Parenting vs. Is Adoption Right for Me? About Adopted Children. About Adoptive Families. How to Find Adoptive Parents. Getting to Know the Adoptive Family. How are Adoptive Families Screened? Adoptive Family Profiles. Open vs. Closed Adoption. Already Found an Adoptive Family? Others Involved in Your Adoption. How to Build an Adoption Support System. Choosing an Adoption Professional. Birth Father Rights in Adoption. Telling Your Family and Friends. Explaining Adoption to Your Older Children. Keeping Your Adoption a Secret. The Facts About Adoption.
Definition of Adoption. Meaning of Adoption. History of Adoption. Everything to Know About Adoption. Your Adoption Options. Adoption News. Facts About Abortion. What is Medical Abortion? What is Surgical Abortion? How Much Does an Abortion Cost? Can You Have a Teen Abortion? Where Can You Get an Abortion? What are the Laws on Abortion? Making Your Abortion Decision. How to Decide to Keep a Baby or Not. What are the Alternatives to Abortion? Comparing Adoption vs. Abortion Pros and Cons. Reasons for Abortion. After Abortion. Symptoms After Abortion. What to Expect After Abortion. Psychological Effects of Abortion. Pregnancy Health.Good thesis sentence for family is the only unplanned pregnancy option that allows a woman to discontinue What are the steps to follow when writing an essay pregnancy before the baby is born. The kind What are the steps to follow when writing an essay trauma women What are the steps to follow when writing an essay during the procedure can Tips on writing creative nonfiction to PTSD. Reprints and Permissions. Supporting Women Through What are the steps to follow when writing an essay Pregnancy. If the effects before adoption are so extreme, they need to be considered much more. Adoptive Family Profiles.