Review Of Literature On Job Satisfaction Of Teachers
What is a GPS info pack? Turno. From the review of extant literature, it has been found that it is always not Types of conclusions to an essay which leads to job satisfaction rather it is the work Best ipad app for writing college papers. Workers should What subject does MyEnglishLab help teach? offered An essay about myself in german opportunities Transitions words compare contrast essays attend conferences in their field, seminars, or in-house training programs Buhler, However, when the level of satisfaction of teachers increases by one unit, their work performance also increases by 10 percent. Bio data of the respondents. Review of Educational Research, 73 1 Where can you watch live Indian Premier League cricket matches?, 89— Bussing, A.
A STUDY ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION BY SALOMI .J
This showed that teachers who were single were less satisfied with their job. A study by Brackett et al. This meant married teachers were happier as secondary school teachers than other marital statuses. Table 4. Effect size indicates the relative magnitude of the differences between the means. In the qualitative data, all the respondents were married. When asked how marital status affects their job satisfaction, married respondents revealed thus: It makes me to be responsible in that I have to guard it and even my marriage. It gives status in society as am going back home, I am assured of food, my clothes are washed and ironed and so it makes me to concentrate on teaching and I know that I have to defend this job because the other party also depends on it P 2 Marital status affects job satisfaction positively.
When you go home, you find meals ready, you wake up and find your shoes polished, clothes ironed then you come to school. It gives you ample time to come to school. You can imagine where you do all those duties. I think that could have stunted my effectiveness in delivering where you are stressed from home, you cannot concentrate. That is why I am saying, my marriage has assisted, I look at it positively P Principal P 2 revealed through verbatim quotations that being married has given him status in society and he had to guard the marriage hence being responsible. Above all there was somebody that did the household chores. Similarly, Principal P 12 revealed that he was satisfied in his job because he was married and most of the chores were being done by the spouse like cooking, cleaning among others and this gave him ample time to perform in school.
Similarly, in Britain a study by Brackett et al. When asked how marital status affects job satisfaction, P 5 , a married respondent revealed: Am okay because if I could not be married, then I could not be complete P 5. Respondent P 5 a female principal in one of the county schools revealed that she was comfortable with her marital status because it made her complete. When asked about any challenges faced as a result of his marital status, P 2 a married respondent revealed: As far as am concerned, I have related well with both male and female students, staff and workers of course you may have few members of the opposite sex, who may have some over just, some advances, but when you know what your duties are, you become their friend and you help them to overcome whatever challenges they have as far as their relationship with you is concerned.
The few challenges have been handled with satisfaction P 2. Respondent P 2 revealed through verbatim quotes that much as there are challenges as a result of him being married, he had related well with both staff, students and workers and the few challenges had been handled to satisfaction. When asked how marital status affects their job satisfaction, P 12 , a married respondent narrated: There are rumors you may get, you know how women are, maybe your wife is told oh, Mwalimu is interested in one of the madams, they smile at one another. Normally am told later on but it is not a big issue because gradually it will go off P Respondent P 12 revealed a challenge as a result of his marital status especially where the wife was misinformed of him having a relationship with the female teachers but he was informed later hence it did not appear to be a big issue as it went off gradually.
When asked how marital status affects their job satisfaction, P 9 , a married respondent narrated: Female staff may retard your effort, you may give a delegated duty to a female, for a reason, she fails to do it, so if you make too much follow-up, it may reflect that you are undermining them so in one way, you withdraw P 9. Respondent P 9 revealed that for him delegating duty to the female teachers was a challenge because they failed to perform and when he made too much follow-up they indicated something different. When asked of the challenges faced as a result of her marital status, P 5 revealed: Co-ordinating between the profession and the family like my daughter Precious wants me in her school and the KNEC exams are going on Respondent P 5 cited that balancing between the job and the family was the challenge.
In a study by Raburu about women academics indicated similar challenges of balancing family and career. However, this study differs with a study in Ireland by Fitzmaurice which reported that the single seemed more satisfied than the married and divorced. In addition, in Britain a study by Gazioglu and Tansel that revealed that the married individuals had a lower satisfaction compared to the unmarried. Qualitative data findings tended to agree with the findings from a study in Kenya by Anyango, Ojera and Ochieng which established that marital status did not significantly affect job satisfaction. However, it differed with a study in Nigeria by Popoola and Oluwole which reported a positive relationship between marital status and job satisfaction.
On contribution of each variable to the predication of overall job satisfaction unstandardized beta were explored. It showed that all unstandardized beta coefficient values for marital status were negative indicating that married teachers, who were the reference variable, registered highest job satisfaction over and above other marital status. For example, unstandardized beta coefficient of However, teachers who were widowed registered overall job satisfaction of only. In this study, the married had the highest job satisfaction The principals have hardly been left out since there is going to be harmony in their work stations that may come in as a result of handling dissatisfaction issues in the teachers.
Teachers may benefit in the sense that when job satisfaction issues are dealt with they are likely to be the direct beneficiaries. Teacher counselors may benefit in the sense that they provide therapy to dissatisfied teachers and therefore their workload will decrease. Finally, the study may also benefit in building a rich body of knowledge for reference by scholars and researchers. This study concluded that teacher counsellors should adopt cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to assist divorced and single teachers to enhance their self-esteem and job satisfaction. This is because the study reported that married teachers had a higher job satisfaction compared to the single, divorced, separated and widowed.
This way it will promote creativity, innovation and productivity for sustainable development. Future research should be directed at school environment and job satisfaction among secondary school teachers. References  Abdullah, M. Parasuraman B. Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Teachers. Journal Kemanusiaan 1 3 , A Journal of Education and Social Research , 5 2 , Employee Characteristics and job Satisfaction.
International Journal of Science and Research , 4 6 , Teacher effectiveness and self-confidence as predictor of burnout among male Secondary School Edubeam. Multidisciplinary-O nline Research J ournal 11 1 , Research design: Qualitative and Quantitative and mixed method Approaches. Thosand Oaks, C. A: Sage. Unpublished document. On emotionally intelligent time travel: Individual differences in affective forecasting ability.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 33 1 , Journal of Behavioral and S ocial Sciences , 2 , Job Satisfaction in Ireland: An Investigation into the influence of Self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy and affect. Journal of Education and Behavioral S ciences , 8 3 , Job satisfaction in Britain: Individual and Job related factors. Journal of Applied Economics , 38 10 , How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods , 18 1 , The motivation to work. The most dominant factor affecting the performance and innovation of mathematics teachers is competence . Structural relationships among innovative school climate, knowledge sharing, work engagement, and knowledge creation activities among high school teachers in Korea were examined.
The strong and significant relationship among the work-life balance and work-family conflict, family-work conflict, work environment, and feelings about work was found. Feeling about work is the most influencing factor of work-life balance. Attitudes about work, conducive work environment, reduced work-family conflict, and reduced family-work conflict resulted in stable work-life balance and ultimately on job satisfaction for the employees . Teachers generally having a negative attitude towards pay-for-performance were seen. Teachers felt that morale and teacher collaboration would be affected negatively as well as increasing stress levels. Having pay-for-performance based on individual student achievement or standardized tests was also seen as a negative result .
While both teachers and principals feel that providing individual support is essential, only principals believe that building vision is necessary. In the Philippines, a study in the Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas City, the job satisfaction of the teaching and non-teaching staff was conducted. There was a significant relationship between hygiene and motivation factors based on the level of job satisfaction of teaching and non-teaching staff . The employees expressed strong agreement with university practices such as setting clear goals, encouraging innovation for organizational effectiveness and continuous improvement through a quality management system . However, educational attainment and experience are the most important factors for predicting success as an administrator in higher education .
Job enrichment has to include not only the knowledge, experience, and skills of administrators but the context and working conditions of employees. Structural relationships among learning-organization culture, self-efficacy, work engagement, and job performance in Korean workforce institutions were conducted. Many professions are considered delicate and challenging. Some teachers were afraid that they did not have the skills necessary for teaching children . Creating a healthy learning environment is of paramount concern to most teachers, and appropriate development of that environment is a challenge faced during student-teaching .
Thus, managing a classroom is a must skill introduced in as early as practice teaching. A study that assessed the relationship between teacher retention and job security in private secondary schools in Ogun state, Nigeria revealed that retention strategies and job security were related significantly in private secondary schools . The empathetic concern of the selected principals had contributed positively to the work performance of teachers.
Rewards and punishment did not impact to the improved performance of teachers. Teachers who worked in schools that implement Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports PBIS had better performance rating in posting, teaching, reviewing, monitoring, and reinforcing expectations than those who did not. Additionally, teachers with exclusive education license were a better performer in maximizing structure, using different strategies and techniques in classroom management than those who were not .
It states that there are two opposite ends—job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the continuum. An employee needs to meet the motivating factors like pay and benefits, recognition, and achievement so that he will be satisfied with his work. If an employer wants to motivate his team to perform better in the company, then he needs to focus on factors that lead to satisfaction like achievement, recognition, and responsibility . Specifically, the study answered the following objectives:. This study used descriptive-correlational design. The research design is used to explain phenomena, attitudes, opinions, and behaviors or other defined variables by collecting numerical data which are analyzed using statistically based methods .
The study was conducted in the first and second Congressional Districts of the Division of Misamis Occidental. The respondents of the study were one hundred four school heads and three hundred thirteen Elementary school teachers of the Division of Misamis Occidental chosen through stratified random sampling. Below is a list of respondents. The following research instruments were used in the gathering of data and information in the study.
It is a item questionnaire with nine constructs, adopted and modified from Lester, , designed to measure the level of job satisfaction of teachers. Responses were solicited using a five-point scale ranging from 5 always to never 1. Five experts validated the tool for them to decide whether to retain, revise, or reject the indicators. After which, the corrections of the experts were incorporated into the final draft. It was then pilot-tested to teachers who were not included as the respondents of the study. Hence it was valid and reliable. Documentary analysis was observed in the research. The study utilized the performance of teachers during the School Year as rated by their school heads. In determining the work performance of the teachers, the following continuum was used.
The researchers secured a certification and letter of request from the Graduate School of Misamis University. Then, approval of the Schools Division Superintendent in the Division of Misamis Occidental was sought for the conduct of the study. Similar permission was obtained from the District Supervisor of the second Congressional District of the division of Misamis Occidental and the principals of the elementary schools. The researcher personally did the actual data gathering.
The data gathered were tallied, organized, treated statistically, interpreted, and analyzed. With the use of Minitab software, the following statistical tools were used in interpreting the data of this study:. Mean and Standard Deviation. This means that due to the support and supervision of the school heads, the teachers get satisfied with their job. Moreover, they help their colleagues in their teaching career, also attributed to pleasant working conditions. The teachers also see their compensation adequate to satisfy all their usual needs. It can also be noted that the teachers were delighted with their uniform rate.
At every rank they earn, they get the corresponding rise in pay by their performance and other factors. They feel responsible for their actions and the delivery of lessons for student learning. They view teaching as a social work which provides an opportunity to use a variety of skills. They feel secure in the job, and they are. Table 1. Note: Scale: 4. However, the teachers rated compensation and recognition the lowest among all areas, though they are still very highly satisfied.
Hence, the organization has to look into how to improve these areas. Employees who are satisfied in the job are adaptive emotionally and enjoyed satisfactorily . Job satisfaction is essential to the success of the situation. It leads to a higher efficiency rating and increases the level of motivation. Adaptability, job motivation, and job success may influence the creation of job satisfaction . The satisfaction level of excellent teachers which was low in terms of personal growth and supervision  contradicts to the finding of this study since all factors are rated very highly satisfied and highly satisfied.
Teachers are essential factors in the teaching-learning process. It is vital that teachers are satisfied with the working conditions that they have for them to perform well and therefore, deliver quality education to students. They have to be given attention by their immediate heads or supervisors. It is also essential that the colleagues are supporting each other. Unity among the members will give a significant impact to the organization as they will embody the sense of responsibility of all of their actions. School heads have to ensure that due recognition for teachers with exemplary performance in the school is done to boost their self-esteem, thus provide them with the feeling of security of their work.
Advancement in the profession has to be also ensured to help the teachers increase their self-efficacy and eventually improve the quality of teaching. Table 2. Some teachers were afraid that they did not have skills necessary for teaching children  but for some, creating a healthy learning environment is of paramount concern and challenges faced during teaching . The most dominant factor affecting the performance and innovation of is competence . Promoting perceptions of meaningful work might contribute to higher work engagement, better self-ratings of performance, and retention of teachers . The job satisfaction level increased as the person grew old where in the variables like gender, time in hospital, position held were controlled.
Organizations should always focus on satisfying the three basic needs Individual motivators, Employee relationships and personal relationships of an employee which will in return help the employees in achieving job satisfaction. Melvin stated that the environmental design of an organization plays a very important role in job satisfaction at the same time it also plays an important role in employees high job involvement.
A good environmental design of an organization helps in resolving the conflicts and confusion. The author even cites that it is the responsibility of the management to design the environment in such a manner that it reduces the dissatisfaction where in the work tasks, working patterns are properly mentioned. MacDermid studied the job satisfaction level of workaholics. He said there are six variables of workaholic patterns i. The job satisfaction level and career satisfaction level was much more in Enthusiastic Workaholics , Work Enthusiastic, Relaxed Workers than Workaholics, Unengaged Workers and Disenchanted Workers because of the future career prospects, working involvement, drive and work enjoyment. S than Britain. In the study he found that in U. S there is a positive relationship between Job Satisfaction and Age where as in Britain it was considerably low.
Partridge studied the job satisfaction level of women in Britain in which he found that the job satisfaction level of women was more as compared with black men, as they normally have low expectations from their jobs. At the same time they have a greater feeling that the alternative jobs available to them differs very less than those available to them. The employee attitude is related to the job, when a person has a liking towards to the job the satisfaction level increases there by increasing the organization performance as in a whole.
Savery highlights the effect of motivators on job satisfaction. The study says stress being one of the major reason leading to dissatisfaction therefore it has to be taken care of properly to reduce the level of dissatisfaction. The immediate supervisor is the person who has a major influence on job satisfaction. The supervisor helps in increasing the satisfaction level by offering more of intrinsic motivators like challenging work and career development to the subordinates and he is the one who provides the most tangible assistance to the subordinate. Work environment is the key factor in job satisfaction.
Good work environment and good working conditions leads to job satisfaction at the same time helps in increasing employee work performance, profitability, customer satisfaction as well as retention. Job Satisfaction is always maximum when an employee is satisfied with the work which is assigned to him. Witte highlighted on the group differences aspect in job satisfaction. The study was done on the banking sector in Belgium. A model was created for testing the hypothesis. Omey discusses the relationship between educational level and job satisfaction. He says though there is a relationship it also says that there is no relationship as well.
Higher educated workers are always satisfied in comparison with the lower educated workers, the fact being higher educated people obtain a job of better quality. Quality of jobs offered to the employees differs with the educational level leading to different degree of job satisfaction. Job characteristics have a big role as here one gets a scope to use his or her own skills.
Therefore the author suggests that organizations should focus more on job quality than educational level. Oshagbemi highlights on the effect of ranking on the job satisfaction level of UK academicians. Rank increases the job satisfaction level of the academics. Based on the analysis it was found that gender and rank have direct impact on the level of job satisfaction of university teachers. Female academics in the ranks of senior lecturer, reader and professor were more satisfied than men in the same rank. Kumari and Pandey states that public sector and private sector both are equally important for any nation and these two are the basic requirement for any nation to prosper and grow. Here the job satisfaction level was tested in relation to job ambivalence the state of having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas about something.
Higher performance rating was given to the supervisor when the job ambivalence faced by the employees is less and vice-e-versa. Job satisfaction and performance has no relation when the job ambivalence increases towards the job. Therefore, organizations should focus on bringing clarity to the employees about their work, the process to be followed for the better understanding of the job. Seniwoliba A. Salary and working conditions play a larger role in job satisfaction and by enlarge organizations should focus on it always and take steps for improving it. Equal pay for equal rank has to be preached by organizations. There are two aspects to satisfaction mainly intrinsic and extrinsic. Earned status and respect are those of the extrinsic factors which plays an important role in employee satisfaction.
Self-efficacy as an intrinsic factor helps as it promotes individual self-fulfillment. When organization value its employees contribution, cares about their well being then employees are satisfied intrinsically and extrinsically. Aristovnik discusses influence of organizational and environmental factors on employee job satisfaction. The police employees rated salary and security as the least motivator and support from the management as high. Police employees rate trust and belongingness as the key factor to job satisfaction. Good pay, highly skilled subordinates, growth opportunities relates to self-fulfillment. Employers should focus on these three factors i. Promotion is a key factor in job satisfaction. It is the duty of the manger to monitor and improve the employee satisfaction level related to supervision quality, working conditions, intrinsic compensations and benefits and company policies so that it helps in achieving the desired level of satisfaction within the employees.
Hawley discusses on the beginning teachers job satisfaction level and factors influencing their level of satisfaction. Teachers are be found to be satisfied with their job and the factors which lead to their job satisfaction were academic proficiency ,race, socioeconomic status, teaching license and if their mother was a teacher. Teaching license plays a getter role here as it shows the necessary skills and knowledge required for teaching and which the teacher posses.
Antvor discusses the influence of national culture on the national job satisfaction level and at the same time he also discusses its effect on other evaluations of job related aspects. They state that although cultural influence was there in national job satisfaction, all job aspects of job satisfaction were not cultural context specific. Management has to be careful while comparing the results from a cross-national job satisfaction study.Thus, research What subject does MyEnglishLab help teach? that the tendency to experience What subject does MyEnglishLab help teach? cannot be What subject does MyEnglishLab help teach? from personality or behavior pattern. Stress is felt at the work place due to lack of power, role conflict and role ambiguity leading to job dissatisfaction. Where can you watch live Indian Premier League cricket matches? this paper, we have taken various techniques of motivation from existing literature, and managed to make flow of motivation from young-age employees to old-age employees. Rewards and punishment did Writing prompts 5 paragraph essay impact to the improved performance of teachers.