Case Study Research Methodology Qualitative
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Types of Qualitative Research:Narrative, Phenomenology, Grounded Theory, Ethnography, \u0026 Case Studies
Data gathering can best be described as occurring within two interconnected and sometimes simultaneous parts: the mining of existing data sets and the gathering of primary data through fieldwork. As Creswell et al. As such, in each country, a team of four researchers collaborated to conduct the case studies. This design required continual cross fertilization across the strands, in part to interrogate the validity or feasibility of emerging findings and in part to expand the learning by extended analysis.
Here the team would meet over two days to report emergent findings and discuss issues of integration and fit between both qualitative and quantitative data and countries. Examples of this design are evident in the following stages: a Gathering contextual data for the sites In order to understand the complex interplay between poverty, deprivation, locality and intervention rates we gathered the same data sets in each site using the same tools.
Contextual data about the case study sites were gathered by desk based research. In Scotland, site level demographics were collated using the Standard Outputs function of the Scotland Census website for the Scottish Census. Where possible these data were gathered over a five-year period — Alongside this, the routinely collected child protection data gathered for work stream A were also collated and analyzed. The analysis of these data formed an important backdrop for the fieldwork within the sites, detailing the extent of social work involvement. Attempts were made to obtain similar data for Scotland. However, specific expenditure on LAC was not available as in England, meaning a similar analysis could not be undertaken in Scotland. These interviews aimed to capture an overview of the service structure and history, generating preliminary data about social work within the case study sites.
Respondents were also asked about decision making processes and how, if at all, they felt deprivation informed child welfare decision making. These data revealed professional narratives about the sites, offering glimpses into how they were positioned and understood by the social workers practicing within respective host LAs. As overt observers, researchers were able to take contemporaneous field notes, during long periods of watching social workers and talking to them about what they were doing, thinking and saying Delmont, Fieldnotes were then expanded upon nightly with further details added in order to capture the nuances of observed social work practice, without losing recall. Throughout the blocks of fieldwork researchers also convened data gathering exercises with respondents, sampled purposefully according to their membership of the Duty and Assessment teams Patton, These maps were co-constructed on large flip chart paper with memos detailing each stage in the process described.
Decision making flowcharts were then used as visual prompts in subsequent conversational interviews and group discussions throughout the fieldwork, generating important insights into the similarities and differences between LA practices. Focus groups each included a purposive sample of between four and six Duty and Assessment social workers. This range was subject to the availability of social workers throughout fieldwork.
Focus groups were based on a single standardized vignette designed to prompt discussion around decision making practices, the influence or non-influence of poverty and rationales for interventions. The vignette had two parts, and was developed using available data to present a typical case example, including: the most likely child age, gender, ethnicity, family circumstances, household type and abuse type.
Part one presented a description of a family experiencing economic hardship, with initial concerns about how well they were coping with a small child. Part two, depicted an escalation of risk, where potential harm to the child became apparent. Following part one respondents were invited to consider the following structured questions: 1. What are the critical factors for you in deciding your own preferred response? What would be the most likely outcome in your team from this initial set of enquires?
From your experience what would be the likely outcome? What would be the critical factors influencing the outcome? These structured questions were developed to support comparative analyses of social work responses and proved significant in our conclusion that practice differences could not explain unequal rates of child welfare intervention. Following the vignette activity researchers worked through a short semi-structured focus group schedule. Topics for questioning included: characteristics of the case study sites, decision making rationales, and demand and supply characteristics. Qualitative data were analyzed using a combined pre-set and inductive coding technique Boyatzis, We built a coding frame - derived from our research questions - encompassing codes relating to poverty, demand, supply and intervention characteristics see appendix.
Practically, field notes, interview and focus group transcripts were reviewed line for line and coded using a basic thematic approach. Trends were analyzed using latent growth models LGM. Framework analysis adopts a case and theme based approach, allowing large quantities of complex data to be managed through a process of summarization and synthesis. For illustrative purposes Figure 1 shows a section of the matrix output. We constructed our matrix using Microsoft Excel Online.
As Harris et al. Code documents were constructed systematically and integrated all relevant data under each code. Integrating data in this way was important because it enabled cross method comparisons and analyses Greene, Indeed, both quantitative and qualitative data were relevant to most codes. Figure 2 illustrates the kind of data that were incorporated into code documents linked to a given cell in the matrix. Highlighted in the graphs is a bolded black line that visualises the data associated with the LA so it can be seen relative to the average trend across LAs the bolded, coloured lines , and the variation in trends across all other local authorities the opaque grey lines. The lower right hand side displays two confirmatory quotations from semi- structured interviews conducted within the corresponding case study site.
Both relate to concerns regarding the impact of changing priorities in service funding for front line social work practice, particularly in terms of rising caseloads. The text located at the base of the figure displays the meta inference gained from integrating quantitative and qualitative strands. Teddlie and Tashakkori , p. As well as a practical way to reduce data, code summaries allow all members of the research team to engage with the data during analysis, without necessarily reading all of the descriptive statistics and transcripts Gale et al. Our analysis produced a series of outputs. Reports were structured around the key themes identified for theoretical replication, with particular attention paid to issues of demand and supply in child and family social work.
The details of each individual case report were then collated into an overarching cross-case report indicating the extent of replication across the case studies. These case studies generated rich data concerned with poverty and interventions, with outputs that had direct relevance for policy and practice Bywaters et al. The following section provides an integrated account of some pertinent case study findings alongside points of learning derived from our approach to site selection and the management of confirmatory, expansionary and discordant data. Findings and discussion Site selection in comparative case study research Our comparative focus warranted a rigorous selection process.
Sharp et al. Our mixed methods sampling process generated a confident base from which to explore the unequal child welfare intervention rates observed in the quantitative data. Yet, our case studies identified only very minor variations in social work practice. This is despite sampling a range of high and low deprivation LAs with corresponding child welfare intervention rates. For example, of the 15 focus groups completed, all but one concluded that the case presented in the vignette warranted a Child Protection Plan. Respondents across the host LAs also routinely ignored or sidelined references to family poverty, justifying their assessment in terms of the risk presented to the child.
The following extracts, taken from case studies in both high and low deprivation LAs are illustrative: Social Worker Low deprivation LA : I can see this, even with a relatively short assessment, this going toward child protection The domestic violence that is coming out and the alcohol misuse, these are factors that don't happen overnight, so we can look back and say that for as long as Zoe and Elliott have been in a relationship, there has been an element of alcohol misuse or they haven't coped very well and they have used alcohol as a coping mechanism, and that has led to violence. The home conditions also seem to be having an impact on Toby so I think you would get a plan on that. Controversially, these data suggest that local practice, in fact, has only a weak relationship with unequal intervention rates, indicating that in order to understand child welfare inequalities systemic factors need to be taken into account.
This conclusion could not have been reached without robust basis from which to compare case study sites. Our mixed methods case studies produced both confirmatory and expansionary data. For example, in one high deprivation LA, analysis of the conversion rates from referral into the child protection system to assessment and assessment outcome indicated that, though a high number of families were assessed, a relatively low proportion of those families received an outcome warranting further child protection involvement.
These findings were confirmed by interview data with the team manager servicing the case study site. Contemporaneous analysis of demand and supply data aided the expansion of those findings. These data revealed how the LA had received substantial funding cuts at a time of increased demand measured as CPPs and LAC per 10, children , alongside a fall in the number of social workers per 10, children, indicating a rise in caseloads. The following fieldnote episode, gathered in the child and family social work office is illustrative: Extremely busy office.
Lots of bustle following the team meeting - social workers all jumped straight onto their phones or began to discuss cases. Others reflected on the challenges of practicing with high caseloads. Combined these quantitative and qualitative data depicted a child protection system that was experiencing rising demand at a time of diminishing resources, managed through the filtering of case work out of the child protection system and into allied Early Help services.
These findings are mirrored by similar studies of demand and provision in English child protection systems Hood et al. For example, despite varying levels of deprivation across the six host LAs, we captured very similar narratives about issues of resourcing and the impacts for social work practice. None of our respondents reported an adequate level of resourcing, despite their location within more or less deprived LAs. Contradicting our qualitative data, these analyses revealed the unequally distributed nature of austerity cuts, despite the production of similar austerity narratives across the nation. Our findings indicate the considerable value of adopting a mixed methods approach within this complex field.
Analyzing the case study data revealed a surprising lack of poverty awareness and anti-poverty planning in child and family social work. The concurrence of these data across the host LAs suggests that practice alone cannot explain the unequal rates in child welfare intervention observed. Indeed, further analysis of quantitative data suggest that systemic factors, such as patterns of expenditure, need to be interrogated, if child welfare inequalities are to be understood and addressed.
Mixed methods sampling and the management of confirmatory, expansionary and discordant data enabled our team to reach meta inferences about UK child protection systems that could not have been reached without an integrated mixed methods design and process. However, this approach is not for the faint hearted. Researchers have had to spend time learning new skills, having ongoing conversations with other team members to confirm rigor and moving across sites to ensure comparability. Contribution to the field of mixed methods This article has presented a detailed overview of mixed methods integration in a study of social work decision making, related to child welfare inequalities Bywaters et al. Delineation of the full integration of quantitative and qualitative methods throughout all stages of multisite mixed methods case study projects remains a gap in the methodological literature.
By detailing the application and integration of mixed methods throughout our research process we have elucidated some of the ways that quantitative and qualitative data can be brought together, adding rigor to multisite, comparative case study research. Specifically, this article has contributed to the field of mixed methods in three ways: i By detailing and critically reflecting a process of mixed methods site selection this article has extended the still limited literature on this topic for multisite case study projects Sharp et al.
At the end of the interview, it was realized that most of the books in the stores were suitable for adults and there were not enough options for children or teenagers. By conducting this qualitative research the bookstore owner realized what the shortcomings were and what were the feelings of the readers. Through this research now the bookstore owner can now keep books for different age categories and can improve his sales and customer outreach. Such qualitative research method examples can serve as the basis to indulge in further quantitative research, which provides remedies. Researchers make use of qualitative research techniques when they need to capture accurate, in-depth insights. Here are some examples of when to use qualitative research.
The basic differences between qualitative research methods and quantitative research methods are simple and straightforward. They differ in:. Though you're welcome to continue on your mobile screen, we'd suggest a desktop or notebook experience for optimal results. Survey software Leading survey software to help you turn data into decisions. Research Edition Intelligent market research surveys that uncover actionable insights. Customer Experience Experiences change the world.
Deliver the best with our CX management software. Workforce Powerful insights to help you create the best employee experience. What is qualitative research? Gather research insights Types of qualitative research methods with examples Qualitative research methods are designed in a manner that help reveal the behavior and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic. Also, read about qualitative research examples : 1. One-on-one interview: Conducting in-depth interviews is one of the most common qualitative research methods. Focus groups: A focus group is also one of the commonly used qualitative research methods, used in data collection. Ethnographic research: Ethnographic research is the most in-depth observational method that studies people in their naturally occurring environment.
Case study research: T he case study method has evolved over the past few years and developed into a valuable qual research method. Record keeping: This method makes use of the already existing reliable documents and similar sources of information as the data source. Process of observation: Qualitative Observation is a process of research that uses subjective methodologies to gather systematic information or data.
Qualitative research: data collection and analysis A. Qualitative data collection Qualitative data collection allows collecting data that is non-numeric and helps us to explore how decisions are made and provide us with detailed insight. Whatever method a researcher chooses for collecting qualitative data, one aspect is very clear the process will generate a large amount of data. In addition to the variety of methods available, there are also different methods of collecting and recording the data. As a rough guide, it can take a seasoned researcher hours to transcribe the recordings of an interview, which can generate roughly pages of dialogues. Many researchers also like to maintain separate folders to maintain the recording collected from the different focus group.
This helps them compartmentalize the data collected. In case there are running notes taken, which are also known as field notes, they are helpful in maintaining comments, environmental contexts, nonverbal cues etc. These filed notes are helpful and can be compared while transcribing audio recorded data. Such notes are usually informal but should be secured in a similar manner as the video recordings or the audio tapes. Qualitative data analysis Qualitative data analysis such as notes, videos, audio recordings images, and text documents. Characteristics of qualitative research methods Qualitative research methods usually collect data at the sight, where the participants are experiencing issues or problems. These are real-time data and rarely bring the participants out of the geographic locations to collect information.
Qualitative researchers typically gather multiple forms of data, such as interviews, observations, and documents, rather than rely on a single data source. This type of research method works towards solving complex issues by breaking down into meaningful inferences, that is easily readable and understood by all. When to use qualitative research Researchers make use of qualitative research techniques when they need to capture accurate, in-depth insights. Developing a new product or generating an idea. To understand your strengths and weaknesses. Understanding purchase behavior. Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources.
Conclusion: By providing an example of how each stage of the analysis was conducted, it is hoped that researchers will be able to consider the benefits of such an approach to their own case study analysis. Keywords: Case study data analysis; case study research methodology; clinical skills research; qualitative case study methodology; qualitative data analysis; qualitative research. Abstract Aim: To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology.Carter, V. Three different methods have been used in business case teaching: 1 prepared case-specific What are some funny cartoon character names? to be answered by the student, 2 problem-solving analysis and 3 a Essay writing on outdoor games applicable strategic planning approach. How do you write the general objective for a resume? framework was based on the literature and her personal experiences. Both How do you write the general objective for a resume? worked Essay about life in the trenches sequence to address the common program objective: Case study research methodology qualitative the role of deprivation in the production of unequal child welfare intervention rates. In addition to the variety How do you write the general objective for a resume? methods available, there are also different methods of collecting and recording the data.