Essay On Why Antibiotics Should Not Be Overused

Friday, February 25, 2022 6:39:08 AM

Essay On Why Antibiotics Should Not Be Overused

Part II. Good Essays. Caries Research. The Research paper lesson plans elementary who returned from surgery 2 hours ago is at risk for life threatening hemorrhage and These include host Research paper lesson plans elementary mechanismsthe location of infection, and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties Methods for designing tangible ui a first comparative case study the antibacterial.

Antibiotics are Overused

Medicine-popular works. Rural Health-handbooks. Hesperian encourages others to copy, reproduce, or adapt to meet local needs, any or all parts of this book, including the illustrations, provided the parts reproduced are distributed free or at cost—not for profit. Any organization or person who wishes to copy, reproduce, or adapt any or all parts of this book for commercial purposes, must first obtain permission to do so from Hesperian. Please contact Hesperian He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in , for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.

He was the third of the four children of farmer Hugh Fleming — from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton — , the daughter of a neighbouring farmer. Hugh Fleming had four surviving children from his first marriage. He was 59 at Breastfeeding The International Council of Nurses ICN considers that breast milk is the food of choice for infants and that as a general principle; exclusive breastfeeding should be protected, promoted and supported for the duration of six months as a global public health recommendation. ICN concurs that it is the right of all working women, including those in the informal sector, to have paid daily breaks or a daily reduction of hours of work when breastfeeding a child, and to have hygienic facilities at or near the workplace www.

It is estimated that 1. This anthology gives a brief descriptions of the different disease along with a few games that teachers can use in the class to accommodate both students with special needs and the normal students. At the end of this anthology are pictures that will give you an idea of the type of diseases suffered by some students. Definition of Terms Obesity An obese person has accumulated so much body fat that it might have a negative effect on their health.

If your BMI is 30 or over you are considered obese. Autism Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood. General and disease-specific strategies for monitoring, preventing and controlling disease outbreaks are discussed. Learning objectives To review communicable diseases of public health importance; To discuss the basic principles for communicable disease control in emergency and post-conflict situations; To plan a communicable disease control programme for emergency settings; To discuss simple but effective ways of preventing outbreaks of communicable diseases; To describe how to manage specific disease outbreaks in emergency settings; To review re-emerging and other diseases that may affect displaced populations; To discuss how to monitor and evaluate communicable disease control programmes.

Key competencies Identify communicable diseases of public health importance; Discuss the basic principles for communicable disease control in emergency and post-conflict situations; Discuss how to design and evaluate disease By itself, it does not constitute complete and comprehensive training. Visit redcross. As a member of Health Net, you have access to a service that offers interpretive services in over different languages.

Also, if you need interpretive services, please call Member Services at least five 5 days before your medical appointment to arrange language interpretive services in time for your appointments. There is no cost for language interpretation services. You are not required to use family or friends to interpret for you. A clean catch urine is difficult to obtain and requires clear directions. Instructing the client to carefully clean the meatus, then void naturally with a steady stream prevents surface bacteria from contaminating the urine specimen.

Other responses do not reflect correct technique 3. Following change-of-shift report on an orthopedic unit, which client should the nurse see first? A B C D 16 year-old who had an open reduction of a fractured wrist 10 hours ago 20 year-old in skeletal traction for 2 weeks since a motor cycle accident 72 year-old recovering from surgery after a hip replacement 2 hours ago 75 year-old who is in skin traction prior to planned hip pinning surgery. C: Look for the client who has the most imminent risks and acute vulnerability.

The client who returned from surgery 2 hours ago is at risk for life threatening hemorrhage and Every minute the loss of a mother shatters a family and threatens the well being of surviving children. For every woman who dies, 20 or more experience serious complications. These range from chronic infections to disabling injuries Such as Obstetric fistula. Maternal death and disability rates mirror the huge discrepancies that exist between the haves and the have-nots both within and between countries. Safe Motherhood begins before conception with proper nutrition and a healthy life style and continues with appropriate prenatal care, the prevention of complications when possible, and the early and effective treatment of complications.

The ideal result is a pregnancy at term, without unnecessary interventions, the delivery of a healthy infant, and a healthy post partum period in a positive environment that supports the physical and emotional needs of the woman, infant and family. Working for the survival of mothers is a human rights imperative. It also has enormous socio-economic ramifications-and is a crucial international priority.

Both the international conference on Population and Development and Millennium Development Goals call for a 75 percent reduction in maternal mortality between and This three prolonged strategy is key to the accomplishment of the goal: -All women have access to contraception to avoid unintended pregnancies. The results will be analyzed based on a one to five scoring system with one being the lowest. The areas where the organization could improve its PFCC care will be discussed. As measured in defined daily doses per 1, inhabitants per day. Mongolia had the highest consumption with a rate of Burundi had the lowest at 4. Antibiotics are screened for any negative effects before their approval for clinical use, and are usually considered safe and well tolerated.

However, some antibiotics have been associated with a wide extent of adverse side effects ranging from mild to very severe depending on the type of antibiotic used, the microbes targeted, and the individual patient. Common side-effects of oral antibiotics include diarrhea , resulting from disruption of the species composition in the intestinal flora , resulting, for example, in overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile. Some antibiotics may also damage the mitochondrion , a bacteria-derived organelle found in eukaryotic, including human, cells. There are few well-controlled studies on whether antibiotic use increases the risk of oral contraceptive failure. Gastrointestinal disorders or interpatient variability in oral contraceptive absorption affecting ethinylestradiol serum levels in the blood.

If patient-specific risk factors for reduced oral contraceptive efficacy are suspected, backup contraception is recommended. In cases where antibiotics have been suggested to affect the efficiency of birth control pills, such as for the broad-spectrum antibiotic rifampicin , these cases may be due to an increase in the activities of hepatic liver enzymes' causing increased breakdown of the pill's active ingredients. Interactions between alcohol and certain antibiotics may occur and may cause side effects and decreased effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics such as metronidazole , tinidazole , cephamandole , latamoxef , cefoperazone , cefmenoxime , and furazolidone , cause a disulfiram -like chemical reaction with alcohol by inhibiting its breakdown by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase , which may result in vomiting, nausea, and shortness of breath.

The successful outcome of antimicrobial therapy with antibacterial compounds depends on several factors. These include host defense mechanisms , the location of infection, and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the antibacterial. In important infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, combination therapy i. In acute bacterial infections, antibiotics as part of combination therapy are prescribed for their synergistic effects to improve treatment outcome as the combined effect of both antibiotics is better than their individual effect. However, this can vary depending on the species of bacteria.

In addition to combining one antibiotic with another, antibiotics are sometimes co-administered with resistance-modifying agents. Antibiotics are commonly classified based on their mechanism of action , chemical structure , or spectrum of activity. Most target bacterial functions or growth processes. Protein synthesis inhibitors macrolides , lincosamides , and tetracyclines are usually bacteriostatic with the exception of bactericidal aminoglycosides. Following a year break in discovering classes of antibacterial compounds, four new classes of antibiotics were introduced to clinical use in the late s and early s: cyclic lipopeptides such as daptomycin , glycylcyclines such as tigecycline , oxazolidinones such as linezolid , and lipiarmycins such as fidaxomicin. With advances in medicinal chemistry , most modern antibacterials are semisynthetic modifications of various natural compounds.

Compounds that are still isolated from living organisms are the aminoglycosides , whereas other antibacterials—for example, the sulfonamides , the quinolones , and the oxazolidinones —are produced solely by chemical synthesis. Since the first pioneering efforts of Howard Florey and Chain in , the importance of antibiotics, including antibacterials, to medicine has led to intense research into producing antibacterials at large scales. Following screening of antibacterials against a wide range of bacteria , production of the active compounds is carried out using fermentation , usually in strongly aerobic conditions. The emergence of resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a common phenomenon.

Emergence of resistance often reflects evolutionary processes that take place during antibiotic therapy. The antibiotic treatment may select for bacterial strains with physiologically or genetically enhanced capacity to survive high doses of antibiotics. Under certain conditions, it may result in preferential growth of resistant bacteria, while growth of susceptible bacteria is inhibited by the drug. Resistance may take the form of biodegradation of pharmaceuticals, such as sulfamethazine-degrading soil bacteria introduced to sulfamethazine through medicated pig feces. Horizontal transfer is more likely to happen in locations of frequent antibiotic use.

Antibacterial resistance may impose a biological cost, thereby reducing fitness of resistant strains, which can limit the spread of antibacterial-resistant bacteria, for example, in the absence of antibacterial compounds. Additional mutations, however, may compensate for this fitness cost and can aid the survival of these bacteria. Paleontological data show that both antibiotics and antibiotic resistance are ancient compounds and mechanisms.

Several molecular mechanisms of antibacterial resistance exist. Intrinsic antibacterial resistance may be part of the genetic makeup of bacterial strains. Acquired resistance results from a mutation in the bacterial chromosome or the acquisition of extra-chromosomal DNA. Antibacterial-resistant strains and species, sometimes referred to as "superbugs", now contribute to the emergence of diseases that were for a while well controlled. For example, emergent bacterial strains causing tuberculosis that are resistant to previously effective antibacterial treatments pose many therapeutic challenges. Every year, nearly half a million new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MDR-TB are estimated to occur worldwide.

Per The ICU Book "The first rule of antibiotics is to try not to use them, and the second rule is try not to use too many of them. Self-prescribing of antibiotics is an example of misuse. Also, incorrect or suboptimal antibiotics are prescribed for certain bacterial infections. Common forms of antibiotic misuse include excessive use of prophylactic antibiotics in travelers and failure of medical professionals to prescribe the correct dosage of antibiotics on the basis of the patient's weight and history of prior use. Other forms of misuse include failure to take the entire prescribed course of the antibiotic, incorrect dosage and administration, or failure to rest for sufficient recovery.

Inappropriate antibiotic treatment, for example, is their prescription to treat viral infections such as the common cold. One study on respiratory tract infections found "physicians were more likely to prescribe antibiotics to patients who appeared to expect them". Several organizations concerned with antimicrobial resistance are lobbying to eliminate the unnecessary use of antibiotics. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has prompted restrictions on their use in the UK in Swann report , and the European Union has banned the use of antibiotics as growth-promotional agents since Food and Drug Administration have advocated restricting the amount of antibiotic use in food animal production.

Two federal bills S. Despite pledges by food companies and restaurants to reduce or eliminate meat that comes from animals treated with antibiotics, the purchase of antibiotics for use on farm animals has been increasing every year. There has been extensive use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. In the United States, the question of emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains due to use of antibiotics in livestock was raised by the US Food and Drug Administration FDA in Studies have shown that common misconceptions about the effectiveness and necessity of antibiotics to treat common mild illnesses contribute to their overuse. Before the early 20th century, treatments for infections were based primarily on medicinal folklore. Mixtures with antimicrobial properties that were used in treatments of infections were described over 2, years ago.

The beer brewed at that time was conjectured to have been the source. The use of antibiotics in modern medicine began with the discovery of synthetic antibiotics derived from dyes. Synthetic antibiotic chemotherapy as a science and development of antibacterials began in Germany with Paul Ehrlich in the late s. He then proposed the idea that it might be possible to create chemicals that would act as a selective drug that would bind to and kill bacteria without harming the human host. After screening hundreds of dyes against various organisms, in , he discovered a medicinally useful drug, the first synthetic antibacterial organoarsenic compound salvarsan , [12] [] [] now called arsphenamine.

This heralded the era of antibacterial treatment that was begun with the discovery of a series of arsenic-derived synthetic antibiotics by both Alfred Bertheim and Ehrlich in While their early compounds were too toxic, Ehrlich and Sahachiro Hata , a Japanese bacteriologist working with Erlich in the quest for a drug to treat syphilis , achieved success with the th compound in their series of experiments. In , Ehrlich and Hata announced their discovery, which they called drug "", at the Congress for Internal Medicine at Wiesbaden. In , Ehrlich received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contributions to immunology.

The first sulfonamide and the first systemically active antibacterial drug, Prontosil , was developed by a research team led by Gerhard Domagk in or at the Bayer Laboratories of the IG Farben conglomerate in Germany, [] [] [] for which Domagk received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Research was stimulated apace by its success.

The discovery and development of this sulfonamide drug opened the era of antibacterials. Observations about the growth of some microorganisms inhibiting the growth of other microorganisms have been reported since the late 19th century. These observations of antibiosis between microorganisms led to the discovery of natural antibacterials. Louis Pasteur observed, "if we could intervene in the antagonism observed between some bacteria, it would offer perhaps the greatest hopes for therapeutics".

In , physician Sir William Roberts noted that cultures of the mold Penicillium glaucum that is used in the making of some types of blue cheese did not display bacterial contamination. In Vincenzo Tiberio , Italian physician, published a paper on the antibacterial power of some extracts of mold. In his thesis, Duchesne proposed that bacteria and molds engage in a perpetual battle for survival. Duchesne observed that E. He also observed that when he inoculated laboratory animals with lethal doses of typhoid bacilli together with Penicillium glaucum , the animals did not contract typhoid. Unfortunately Duchesne's army service after getting his degree prevented him from doing any further research.

In , Sir Alexander Fleming postulated the existence of penicillin , a molecule produced by certain molds that kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria. Fleming was working on a culture of disease-causing bacteria when he noticed the spores of a green mold, Penicillium chrysogenum , in one of his culture plates. He observed that the presence of the mold killed or prevented the growth of the bacteria.

Fleming believed that its antibacterial properties could be exploited for chemotherapy. He initially characterized some of its biological properties, and attempted to use a crude preparation to treat some infections, but he was unable to pursue its further development without the aid of trained chemists. Ernst Chain , Howard Florey and Edward Abraham succeeded in purifying the first penicillin, penicillin G , in , but it did not become widely available outside the Allied military before Later, Norman Heatley developed the back extraction technique for efficiently purifying penicillin in bulk.

The chemical structure of penicillin was first proposed by Abraham in [] and then later confirmed by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in Purified penicillin displayed potent antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria and had low toxicity in humans. Furthermore, its activity was not inhibited by biological constituents such as pus, unlike the synthetic sulfonamides. It was one of the first commercially manufactured antibiotics and was very effective in treating wounds and ulcers during World War II. Tyrocidine also proved too toxic for systemic usage.

Research results obtained during that period were not shared between the Axis and the Allied powers during World War II and limited access during the Cold War. During the midth century, the number of new antibiotic substances introduced for medical use increased significantly. From to , 12 new classes were launched. However, after this, the number of new classes dropped markedly, with only two new classes introduced between and Both the WHO and the Infectious Disease Society of America report that the weak antibiotic pipeline does not match bacteria's increasing ability to develop resistance.

However, these drugs did not address the entire spectrum of resistance of Gram-negative bacilli. A few antibiotics have received marketing authorization in the last seven years. The cephalosporin ceftaroline and the lipoglycopeptides oritavancin and telavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The first in a new class of narrow spectrum macrocyclic antibiotics, fidaxomicin, has been approved for the treatment of C. Possible improvements include clarification of clinical trial regulations by FDA. Furthermore, appropriate economic incentives could persuade pharmaceutical companies to invest in this endeavor.

Under this Act, FDA can approve antibiotics and antifungals treating life-threatening infections based on smaller clinical trials. The CDC will monitor the use of antibiotics and the emerging resistance, and publish the data. The FDA antibiotics labeling process, 'Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Microbial Organisms' or 'breakpoints', will provide accurate data to healthcare professionals. Because antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains continue to emerge and spread, there is a constant need to develop new antibacterial treatments. Current strategies include traditional chemistry-based approaches such as natural product -based drug discovery , [] [] newer chemistry-based approaches such as drug design , [] [] traditional biology-based approaches such as immunoglobulin therapy , [] [] and experimental biology-based approaches such as phage therapy , [] [] fecal microbiota transplants , [] [] antisense RNA -based treatments, [] [] and CRISPR-Cas9 -based treatments.

Most of the antibiotics in current use are natural products or natural product derivatives, [] [] and bacterial , [] [] fungal , [] [] plant [] [] [] [] and animal [] [] extracts are being screened in the search for new antibiotics. Organisms may be selected for testing based on ecological , ethnomedical , genomic or historical rationales. In addition to screening natural products for direct antibacterial activity, they are sometimes screened for the ability to suppress antibiotic resistance and antibiotic tolerance.

For example, glucose , mannitol , and fructose reduce antibiotic tolerance in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus , rendering them more susceptible to killing by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Natural products may be screened for the ability to suppress bacterial virulence factors too. Virulence factors are molecules, cellular structures and regulatory systems that enable bacteria to evade the body's immune defenses e. Antibodies anti-tetanus immunoglobulin have been used in the treatment and prevention of tetanus since the s, [] and this approach continues to be a useful way of controlling bacterial disease.

The monoclonal antibody bezlotoxumab , for example, has been approved by the US FDA and EMA for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection , and other monoclonal antibodies are in development e. AR for the adjunctive treatment of S. Antibody treatments act by binding to and neutralizing bacterial exotoxins and other virulence factors. Phage therapy is under investigation as a method of treating antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Phage therapy involves infecting bacterial pathogens with viruses.

Bacteriophages and their host ranges are extremely specific for certain bacteria, thus, unlike antibiotics, they do not disturb the host organism's intestinal microbiota. Some disadvantages to the use of bacteriophages also exist, however. Bacteriophages may harbour virulence factors or toxic genes in their genomes and, prior to use, it may be prudent to identify genes with similarity to known virulence factors or toxins by genomic sequencing.

In addition, the oral and IV administration of phages for the eradication of bacterial infections poses a much higher safety risk than topical application. Also, there is the additional concern of uncertain immune responses to these large antigenic cocktails. There are considerable regulatory hurdles that must be cleared for such therapies. Fecal microbiota transplants involve transferring the full intestinal microbiota from a healthy human donor in the form of stool to patients with C.

Although this procedure has not been officially approved by the US FDA , its use is permitted under some conditions in patients with antibiotic-resistant C. Antisense RNA-based treatment also known as gene silencing therapy involves a identifying bacterial genes that encode essential proteins e. Antisense RNA-based treatment has been shown to be effective in in vivo models of P. In addition to silencing essential bacterial genes, antisense RNA can be used to silence bacterial genes responsible for antibiotic resistance. Antisense RNA targeting mecA mRNA has been shown to restore the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci to oxacillin in both in vitro and in vivo studies.

In the early s, a system was discovered that enables bacteria to defend themselves against invading viruses. In addition to developing new antibacterial treatments, it is important to reduce the selection pressure for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Strategies to accomplish this include well-established infection control measures such as infrastructure improvement e. Vaccines rely on immune modulation or augmentation. Vaccination either excites or reinforces the immune competence of a host to ward off infection, leading to the activation of macrophages , the production of antibodies , inflammation , and other classic immune reactions.

Antibacterial vaccines have been responsible for a drastic reduction in global bacterial diseases. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Antimicrobial substance active against bacteria. For other uses, see Antibacterial disambiguation. This article is about treatment of bacterial infection. Testing the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method — antibiotics diffuse from antibiotic-containing disks and inhibit growth of S.

Main article: Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics. Main article: List of antibiotics. Main article: Production of antibiotics. Main article: Antibiotic resistance. Main article: Antibiotic misuse. See also: Timeline of antibiotics. Play media. See also: History of penicillin. FDA approved on 19 December Cefiderocol : cephalosporin siderophore. Delafloxacin : quinolone inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Plazomicin ACHN : semi-synthetic aminoglycoside derivative protein synthesis inhibitor. Eravacycline TP : synthetic tetracycline derivative protein synthesis inhibitor targeting bacterial ribosomes. Omadacycline : semi-synthetic tetracycline derivative protein synthesis inhibitor targeting bacterial ribosomes. Lefamulin : pleuromutilin antibiotic.

Brilacidin PMX : peptide defense protein mimetic cell membrane disruption. In phase 2. See also: Bioprospecting. Bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and other organisms are being screened in the search for new antibiotics. Main article: Monoclonal antibody therapy. Main article: Phage therapy. Main article: Fecal microbiota transplant. Further information: Antisense RNA. Retrieved 17 January European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 31 July ISBN Retrieved 13 May Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. Archived from the original on 14 December December The Lancet.

Infectious Diseases. PMID Medscape Multispeciality. Retrieved 21 November The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Antibiotics: Targets, Mechanisms and Resistance. The World Health Organization. April Retrieved 13 June Antimicrobial Classifications: Drugs for Bugs. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Protocols. CRC Press. Applied Microbiology. Springer India. S2CID PMC JSTOR The Antimicrobial Drugs. Oxford University Press, US. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. McGill University, Canada. Archived from the original on 16 February Retrieved 17 February Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

World Journal of Surgery. February Journal of Clinical Oncology. Critical Care Clinics. Cochrane Heart Group February The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Pharmaceutical Journal. Retrieved 22 December July The American Journal of Medicine. NHS Choices. Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 28 December Pair it with probiotics".

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