What Books Are Commonly Used For 9th Grade Science?

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What Books Are Commonly Used For 9th Grade Science?



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10 Books EVERY Student Should Read - Essential Book Recommendations

This also reduces the force on your lungs so the air will move in from the outside. Breathing out is a reverse process. Your diaphragm loosens up and the ribs and lungs thrust in, causing the gas to be exhaled. KEY CONCEPTS The air we breathe goes through the nose, nasal passages, and then through the trachea or windpipe, which separates into two branches, called bronchial tubes or bronchi, one entering each lung. The bronchi subdivide many times inside the lungs, analogous to the branching pattern of grapes, finally becoming hairlike tubes called bronchioles. In the last part of the terminal bronchioles are tiny bubble-like bunch of structures called alveoli or airsacs.

Using a pair of scissors, cut the bottom out of the 2-liter plastic bottle. Create two holes that are apart from each other in the cap of the plastic bottle. Make sure that each hole is just big enough for a straw to fit through. Stick the two straws through the two holes of the bottle cap. Place one balloon on the end of each straw, and secure them with rubber bands, as shown in the figure below. Stick the balloon ends of the straws through the bottle opening and screw the lid on tightly.

Stretch out the larger balloon and place it over the open bottom of the bottle. Secure it with the rubber band as tightly as possible. Refer to the diagram of the finished lung model below. Figure 3. The two straws with the balloons are inserted into the plastic bottle cap. Figure 4. A constructed model of the human chest cavity 8. Pull the larger balloon down; that is, away from the bottle, in order to blow up the two small balloons.

Push the larger balloon towards the bottle in order to let the air out of the two small balloons. Write down your observations. Guide Questions: Q4. What does each part of the constructed lung model represent? What happens as you pull down the balloon at the bottom of the model? What happens as you push up the balloon? How does the movement of the diaphragm cause the air to go in and out of the lungs? What might happen if you prick the balloon? Oxygen is necessary for life to exist. Without it, the cells in the body would not be able to release the energy in food for power, and they would die within minutes. When you inhale air, your respiratory system gets oxygen. When you exhale, carbon dioxide is released.

How do the respiratory and circulatory systems work together to carry out their common purpose? Inhaling moves the diaphragm down and expands the chest cavity. Simultaneously, the ribs move up and increase the size of the chest cavity. There is now more space and less air pressure inside the lungs. Air pushes in from the outside where there is a higher air pressure. It pushes into the lungs where there is a lower air pressure. When you breathe out, or exhale, the diaphragm muscle relaxes. The diaphragm and ribs return to their original place. The chest cavity returns to its original size.

There is now less space and greater air pressure inside the lungs. It pushes the air outside where there is lower air pressure. DRAFT March 31, 9 Perform the next activity to learn more about the gas exchange that takes place in the respiratory and circulatory systems. Activity 3 Just Go with the Flow! Perform the activity with your group mates persons.

Assign and label different areas in the outdoor setting as: lungs, left atrium, left ventricle, arteries, capillary, veins, right ventricle, and right atrium. Using the marking pen, write down the word oxygen on as many paper strips as you can and place them in the lung area. The capillary area should have papers with carbon dioxide written on them. Use the chalk to mark and define the different areas such as what is given in the diagram below. Assign some members of your group to stand still on the different marked areas. Figure 5. Choose two members from the group to take the trip around the different posts. Let the partners start the tour in the lung area and together pick up a paper labeled as oxygen from another member standing at his post. They should carry the strip of paper to the heart, passing through the left atrium, and then to the left ventricle.

As the partners go to every station, they must leave a trail of rope or ribbon held by another member in a designated area, until the path of the journey is completely traced. Partners must run along the chalk marks representing the arteries into the capillary area. Tell the partners to exchange the strip of paper representing oxygen for a piece of paper representing carbon dioxide with a member in his designated area.

Make the partners run along the chalk marks representing the veins into the heart area, first to the right ventricle, then to the right atrium. The partners must then run back into the lung area where the process begins again. When there are no more strips of paper, the activity is over. The leader may want to keep placing new papers into designated areas to keep the game going on longer.

After the activity, record your observations and answer the guide questions. Guide Questions: Q9. How do the heart and the lungs work together? What takes place when you inhale and exhale? What does blood deliver to every part of the body? Why is oxygen important to your body? How will you describe the sequence of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and blood flow in your own words? Color your work to show the distinction of oxygen and carbon dioxide carried in the blood. It is then driven by your heart into the bloodstream, all the way through your body. The heart pumps blood, which transports essential nutrients, oxygen, and other chemicals to every cell in your body.

Once it reaches the cells, oxygen processes the nutrients to release energy. Carbon dioxide is given off during this process. The blood delivers carbon dioxide into the right portion of your heart, from which it is pumped to the lungs. Carbon dioxide leaves your body through the lungs when you exhale. DRAFT March 31, 12 The circulatory system is the life support structure that nourishes your cells with nutrients from the food you eat and oxygen from the air you breathe. It can be compared to a complex arrangement of highways, avenues and lanes connecting all the cells together into a neighborhood. Sequentially, the community of cells sustains the body to stay alive. Another name for the circulatory system is the cardiovascular system.

The circulatory system functions with other body systems to deliver different materials in the body. It circulates vital elements such as oxygen and nutrients. At the same time, it also transports wastes away from the body. The following are the three major parts of the circulatory system, with their roles: 1. Heart — pumps the blood throughout the body 2. Blood — carries the materials throughout the body Figure 6. The human circulatory system Pulmonary Circulation Movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart sln. Coronary Circulation Movement of blood through the tissues of the heart sln. Systemic Circulation Movement of blood from the heart to the rest of the body, excluding the lungs sln.

Take a look at your fist. The heart is a hollow muscle, as seen in Figure 7, which is just as big as your fist. It has four chambers with specific tasks to do: two ventricles and two atria. The atria are the receiving chambers of the heart, accepting blood from the body right atrium and from the lungs left atrium. The ventricles are the pumping chambers, moving blood to the lungs right ventricle and into the body left ventricle. The heart has two pumps. Each pump has two chambers, the upper and lower chambers. The upper chamber is the atrium that receives blood coming in from the veins.

The lower chamber is the ventricle that forces the blood out into the arteries. There is a valve between each atrium and ventricle to prevent the blood from flowing backwards. The valves are like one-way doors that keep the blood moving in only one direction. Valves control movement of blood into the heart chambers and out to the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Refer to Figure 8. Explain how the heart works.

Evaluate how the heart can be compared to a mechanical pump. All of the muscle tissues of the heart do not contract at the same time. Different parts of the heart contract at different times. When the top portion contracts, the bottom part relaxes. When the bottom contracts, the top relaxes. When a chamber contracts, it becomes smaller and the blood inside gets squeezed or pumped out. To have a better understanding of how your heart works, do the next simple activity. Figure 7. The major divisions of the heart Figure 9. The detailed parts of the heart Source: sln. Fill the jar half full of water.

Cut the neck of the balloon off at the part where it starts to widen into a balloon. Set the neck part aside to be used later on. Stretch the balloon over the opening of the jar, pulling it down as tightly as you can. The flatter you can get the surface of the balloon, the better. Carefully poke two holes in the surface of the balloon. Make them about an inch apart from each other and near opposite edges of the jar. Stick the long part of a straw into each hole. The straws should fit securely in the holes so no air can get through around the straws. Slide the uncut end of the balloon neck onto one of the straws and tape it around the straw. Set your pump in a large pan or the sink to catch the pumped water. Bend the straws downward. Gently press in the center of the stretched balloon and watch what happens to the water in the jar.

Refer to the photo below to know what your setup must look like. The heart pump model What does the water inside the jar represent? How will you compare the heart pump model and the human heart? How does the heart function as a pump? Will the heart model be able to function properly if the straw is blocked? Explain your answer. Your heart beat is the sound that your heart makes as it pumps blood. Let us further investigate about it in the next activity.

It is a double pump that pumps on the left and right sides. Every side is divided into two chambers, the atrium and the ventricle, each of which has left and right portion, totaling to four chambers altogether. The top chamber is the atrium plural: atria. The bottom chamber is called the ventricle. The valve acts as a one- way door, allowing blood to flow either forward into the next chamber, or out of the heart. Sit quietly for a few minutes before beginning the activity.

When you are ready, place your first two fingers either on your neck or on the inside of your wrist and locate your pulse. Once you find your pulse, start the watch, and for 60 seconds, count the number of beats you feel. That is your pulse. Try the experiment again, but this time count for only 30 seconds. When you are done, multiply your count by two. Compare your pulses. Repeat by counting for 15 seconds and multiplying your count by four, then counting for 10 seconds and multiplying by six, and so on. Once you have determined your resting pulse, go to a place where you can exercise vigorously for at least one minute. Exercise of this sort might include a fast jog, running stairs, skipping rope, or doing pushups.

When you are done, you should be breathing hard. Choose the length of the test you wish to perform and find your pulse again. Compare your resting pulse with your pulse after exercise. Guide Questions: Q What was your calculated resting pulse? What was your pulse after exercising? How would you differentiate your heart rates before and after exercising? What is the advantage of timing for a full minute to find your pulse?

What is the advantage of timing over a shorter period of time, especially when you have just finished exercising? According to statistics, the maximum heart rate should be minus a person's age. How would you interpret your highest heart rate in relation to that given number? Another risk factor that drastically increases heart rate and decreases the amount of oxygen in the blood is smoking cigarettes. Your heart rate or pulse is the number of times your heart beats in a minute BPM or beats per minute. Shorter time intervals may be used in taking the pulse as long as it comes to 60 seconds upon multiplying with a factor. When you are resting, your heart rate slows down, as your body does not need as much blood as it does when you exercise. Choose a group member who will act as moderator to solicit all the ideas of the members about the negative effects of cigarette smoking on the circulatory and respiratory systems.

Each participant must give at least three negative effects of cigarette smoking on both circulatory and respiratory systems. Answers must be written on the blank cards. The moderator collects the meta cards and reads each one of them while showing the cards to the whole group so that everyone can read them. After discussing the ideas within the group, stick and organize all the responses on the blackboard to categorize which answer falls under the respiratory and circulatory systems. Refer to the example given below. Group the cards with identical or similar statements together into clusters, allowing multiple statements to emerge clearly.

Choose a representative to explain the work of the group. Enrichment Activity Gather and write down information about the different diseases affecting the respiratory and circulatory systems, and their common causes. The leading causes of death around the world are diseases affecting the respiratory and circulatory systems. However, they can be prevented simply by having a lifestyle that promotes wellness. Circulatory and respiratory diseases begin to develop with unhealthy living. Symptoms of these illnesses must not be neglected and appropriate cure must be given immediately. Carry out the next task to further broaden your learning.

The negative effects of smoking on circulatory system include increased heart rate and blood pressure, coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, and vascular diseases. The respiratory diseases caused by smoking are chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, cough, colds, tuberculosis, lung cancer, and other respiratory infections. With your groupmates, create a story that illustrates various ways of preventing diseases that affect the respiratory and circulatory systems. You must also show the importance of keeping our bodies healthy and free from illnesses. Present the story that you made in front of the class by means of role-playing.

Consider the following criteria to serve as your guide in completing the given task. Circulatory and respiratory disease can easily be detected with regular health check-up and physical screening. The expected answers are illnesses that are brought about by the negative lifestyles. Write your answers in the box provided for each number. What idea is common in each set of pictures? What are the negative lifestyles that are depicted in the pictures? How can lifestyle affect the functioning of the respiratory and circulatory systems? How can these negative lifestyles be changed?

What might happen if a person goes on with a negative lifestyle such as what was seen in the activity? Cut out different examples of unhealthy lifestyles from old magazines or newspapers, and create a collage out of the cut-outs on your notebook or journal. Negative lifestyle weakens your system while healthy lifestyle leads to complete wellness. Vices, stressful environments, and unhealthy eating habits can cause various diseases, specifically of the respiratory and circulatory systems. DRAFT March 31, 26 Performance Task: Information Dissemination Activity Goal: Your objective is to present helpful information to the public about effective ways of taking care of the respiratory and circulatory systems based on gathered data.

The challenge is how you will be able to lead the people to take action rather than merely accepting the presented information. There are obstacles to overcome such as the reluctance and preconceived notion of people against changing their lifestyle to promote health. Role: Suppose you work for an advertising company as a graphic artist and your job is to create public informational materials. You are asked to disseminate information to the public regarding a lifestyle that ensures healthy condition of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Audience: Your target individuals to receive the information that you will provide are the people in your school community including all students, teachers, and school officials. Parents and other persons who visit your school might also see your work.

Therefore, it is important that you convince them to consider the ways of taking care of their bodies, specifically the circulatory and respiratory systems. Situation: Upon gathering information from the school or local health workers, you have found out that poor lifestyle affects the performance of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Many people are unaware of this, so they simply continue with their busy lifestyles, neglecting their health, and exploiting their bodies. Product: Design a wall poster or placard that will make members of your audience aware of how they can effectively take care of their respiratory and circulatory systems.

You may use any medium for your artwork. Standards: You will be given three 3 days to conceptualize and execute your ideas through poster-making. Once the product is finished, post it in a conspicuous place such as the canteen where everyone can see it. Your output will be assessed in accordance with the following rubric. Most of the graphics used on the poster reflect student ingenuity in their creation. The graphics were made by the student but were copied from the designs or ideas of others. The graphics were not made by the student. Accuracy and Relevance of the Content All graphics in the poster are accurate and related to the topic.

Most graphics in the poster are accurate and related to the topic. Some graphics in the poster are accurate and related to the topic. The graphics in the poster are neither accurate nor related to the topic. Required Elements The poster includes all required elements as well as additional information. All required elements are included. Few required elements are included. Required elements are missing. The bronchi subdivide many times inside the lungs, forming hairlike tubes called bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles are tiny bubble-like structures called alveoli. The diaphragm helps the air go in and out of the lungs.

It is then pumped by your heart into the bloodstream, all the way through your body. Carbon dioxide is the waste material given off during this process. Each side is divided across into two chambers. The top chamber is called the atrium. The valve acts as one-way door, allowing blood to flow either forward into the next chamber, or out of the heart. When you are resting, your heart rate slows down, as your body does not need as much oxygen as it does when you exercise. The negative effects of smoking on the circulatory system include increased heart rate and blood pressure, coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, and vascular diseases.

The nutrients obtained from the food during digestion are supplied by the circulatory system to the body. What does the circulatory system distribute to the body as it works with the respiratory system? If solid and liquid wastes are removed from the body through defecation and urination, what is released by the body as waste during respiration? What happens to the diaphragm when a person breathes in or inhales? Why is the human heart called a double pump? What will happen if oxygen is not transported by the blood to the different parts of the body?

Since the valves act as the doors of the heart, what might happen if these doors do not close? When we breathe in, we inhale many gases present in the air, including oxygen. What do you think happens to the gases that are not needed by the body? How does singing from the diaphragm, instead of the throat, help improve the voice quality of a singer?

An old woman joined a kilometer-dash sprint and felt very exhausted afterwards. Functional Biology - Modular Approach. Biology: The Web of Life. Blood circulation. Home Training Tools, Ltd. Heart Pump Project. Habits of the Heart. The Heart Activity. In Grade 9, you will focus on describing the location of genes in chromosomes, explain the different patterns of non- Mendelian inheritance and describe the molecular structure of the DNA. Walter Sutton and Theodore Boveri became popular because they found the best evidence that an inherited trait is determined by chromosomes.

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance explained that genes are in the chromosomes. Mendelian laws of inheritance have important exceptions to them. For example, not all genes show simple patterns of dominant and recessive alleles. In this module, you are expected to: 1. Explain the different patterns of non-Mendelian inheritance a. Solve genetic problems related to incomplete dominance, codominance multiple alleles and sex-linked traits. Identify the law that was not strictly followed in the non-Mendelian inheritance 2. Describe the location of genes in chromosomes. Explain the chromosomal basis of inheritance. Identify the components of a DNA molecule As you work on different activities in this module, you should be able to answer the following key questions: Before you start with the module, be sure to answer the pre-assessment questions.

Pre-Assessment : Answer briefly the following questions: 1. What is the genotype of the pink flowers? The structure of the DNA is actually in a double helix arrangement. The nitrogen bases in each of the chain can only pair with specific bases, like adenine pairs only with thymine and cytosine pairs only with guanine. Read the given problem. In some aliens, one center horn A is codominant with two horns B. If an alien inherits both alleles AB , then the alien has three horns. A recessive allele O results in an alien which has no horns.

Can you match the genotype to each of the pictures below? Write the genotype and phenotype of the four aliens in the box provided. Source: image www. DRAFT March 31, 3 In the Mendelian patterns of inheritance, the effects of the recessive gene are not observed when the dominant gene is present. In this lesson, you will find out that certain traits do not always follow the Mendelian principles of heredity. Incomplete Dominance In incomplete dominance, a heterozygote shows a phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes.

Neither allele is dominant over the other. Instead, all flowers will be pink. In incomplete dominance, it is only the phenotype that is intermediate. The red and white alleles remain separate and distinct. Therefore, the genotypic ratio also becomes the phenotypic ratio. Source: buffonescience9. Materials: Activity sheets Manila paper Marking pen Procedure: 1. Using the Punnett square again, show the possible outcome. Show your Punnett square for problems 1 and 2 using a Manila paper. Present and discuss your answers. How many types of gametes will each parent produce in problem no. What are the possible phenotypes of the offspring from the cross of the parental plants in problem no.

What are the possible genotypes of the offspring from the cross of the parental plants in problem no. This results when one allele is not dominant over the other. The resulting heterozygotes exhibit the traits of both parents. One example of codominance is the MN blood typing in humans. On the surface of our red blood cells are proteins bound to sugar molecules, forming complexes called antigens. One group of antigens are controlled by a pair of alleles, LM and LN. The pairing of these alleles will determine the blood type of an individual, and there are three: M, MN and N. Table 1 summarizes the genotypes and phenotypes of the MN blood typing in humans.

Key Concepts Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely dominant over the other allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the dominant and recessive phenotypes. Just like in incomplete dominance, the genotypic ratio in codominance also becomes the phenotypic ratio.

Another good example of codominance is roan fur in cattle as shown in Figure 2. Source: www. Illustrate your answers using a Punnett square. Write your answers on the Manila paper. Will you be able to trace the father of the calves? Do you think you will make Mang Marcelino happy about the result of your investigation? How are you going to explain it to him? How would you apply what you have learned to improve the breeds of livestock in your area?

What possible suggestions can you give to animal breeders in your area? Mang Marcelino owns purebred red cows. During the time that the fences were down, three bulls, one from each neighbor, mingled with his cows. For awhile, he thought that none of the bulls found his cows, but over the months, he noticed that all of his cows are pregnant. He suspected that one of the bulls is the father. Which bull is it? Help Mang Marcelino look for the father by solving the given problem.

An example is ABO blood type in humans. This will also lead to more than two phenotypes expressed. Another blood group system in humans, the ABO system, is an example of a character governed by multiple alleles. Three alleles are responsible for this blood system: IA , IB, and i. Allele i does not code for an antigen. There are four possible blood types as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Human ABO blood types and their phenotypes. However, when the IA and IB alleles are inherited together, both alleles are expressed equally.

This also makes IA and IB codominants of each other. Do you know your blood type? Key Concepts In codominance, both alleles are expressed equally in the phenotype of the heterozygote. For example, red cows crossed with white cows will have offspring that are roan cows. Roan refers to cows with red hair and white blotches. Given the blood types of the mother and the child, identify the possible blood type of the father.

Show the possible alleles that can be found in each offspring and write the blood type for each offspring. What blood type or types can be found in an offspring if a mother has type A blood and the father has type B blood? What blood type or types can be found in an offspring if a mother has type AB blood and the father has type B blood? What blood type or types can be found in an offspring if a mother has type O blood and the father has type B blood? There are many traits that are inherited together more frequently.

For example, the expression of certain traits depends on whether one is male or female. Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination Humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell. Observation of the human body cells shows 23 pairs of chromosomes for both males and females. Twenty- two pairs are somatic chromosomes. The 23rd pair consists of sex chromosomes. Human males and some other male organisms, such as other mammals and fruit flies, have non-identical sex chromosomes XY. Females have identical XX sex chromosomes. Let us study gamete formation based on the sex chromosomes. You will observe in Figure 3 that all egg cells receive an X chromosome; while half of the sperm cells receive X chromosomes and the other half receive Y chromosomes.

If a person receives an A allele and a B allele, their blood type is type AB. Gamete formation involving only sex chromosomes Figure 4. Sex determination If an egg is fertilized by a sperm with a Y chromosome, as shown in Figure 4, the offspring is male. When an egg is fertilized by a sperm carrying an X chromosome, the offspring is female. Note that there is a 50 percent chance of having a male or female offspring. The greater the number of offspring, the greater is the chance of getting the expected ratio of male and female. Draw a Punnett square which shows the inheritance of the sex chromosomes. Represent the female sex chromosomes with XX and the male sex chromosomes with XY. Guide Questions: Q What will be the sex of a child produced when an egg is fertilized by a sperm that has a Y chromosome?

What type of sperm must fertilize an egg to result in a female child? Based on this Punnett Square, what percent of children would you expect to be male? Which sex chromosome is present in both male and female? What are the other factors that may influence the expression of human sexuality?. Genes on the Y chromosomes are called Y-linked genes. An example of an X-linked trait in humans is hemophilia. A person suffering from hemophilia could die from loss of blood even from a small wound because the blood either clots very slowly or does not clot at all. Another example of an X-linked trait is color blindness. To illustrate the inheritance of an X-linked trait, we will use color blindness in our discussion. Let us study Table 3. The X chromosome with the gene for color blindness is represented as XC, while the one without is represented as X.

Table 3 Genotypes and phenotypes of color blindness in humans Genotype Phenotype 1. X X Normal female 2. X XC Normal female, carrier of the gene 3. XC XC Color- blind female 4. XY Normal male 5. The males determine the sex of their children. Females have 44 body chromosomes and two sex chromosomes, both X. The total number in each cell of an individual is These chromosomes contain the genes, which are the factors of heredity. Notice that for a female to become color-blind, she must be homozygous XC XC for the color-blind genes. The trait is, therefore, recessive in females.

If a female has only one X chromosome with the allele for color blindness, she becomes normal but can pass on the trait to her offspring. She is therefore a carrier of the trait. Since males have only one X chromosome, the gene for color blindness when present in the male, will always be expressed because it does not have an allele to hide or prevent its expression. Thus, the male will be color- blind. This is the reason why color blindness is more common in males than in females. Figure 5 is an example of a Y-linked trait, hypertrichosis pinnae auris, a genetic disorder in humans that causes hairy ears. Since the trait is found in the Y chromosome, then only males can have the trait.

A father who has the condition will pass it on to all his sons, and they, in turn, will pass it on to their own sons. Sex-linked Genes Source: www. Materials: Activity sheets Procedure: 1. Read the given problem: A. Color-blindness is a recessive, sex-linked disorder in humans. A color-blind man has a child with a woman who is a carrier of the disorder. Illustrate using a Punnett square the probability of having children who will have normal vision and children who will be color-blind. North American Video. About or. Animal Science. Botany: Plant Science and Field Studies.

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Gamete formation involving only sex chromosomes Figure 4. At the same time, it also transports wastes away from the body. If an alien inherits both alleles ABthen the alien has What are the benefits of buying a car on Craigslist? horns. I used Research papers on business administration while teaching middle school health Essay on nature the gift of god What are the benefits of buying a car on Craigslist? students Help someone with substance abuse essay it a learned a lot. Bend the straws downward. Heart — pumps Research papers on business administration blood throughout the body 2.