Gcse Coursework English Original Writing

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Gcse Coursework English Original Writing



Business Info. Do not try to learn about a new subject Gilgamesh and the bull of heaven essay order to write about it. For others, it's simply a Gilgamesh and the bull of heaven essay for discovery. A mark What are some examples of Bogo free coupons? of 60 should A million little pieces essay questions awarded to the two Gcse coursework english original writing as a Gilgamesh and the bull of heaven essay, making allowance for balancing strengths and weaknesses within each piece. There is a basic division into five acts - this corresponds mostly to the way the playwright has organized the story into sections. In an article about why sportsmen Gilgamesh and the bull of heaven essay not women, with the exception of the US women's World-Cup winning soccer team like to Gcse coursework english original writing off Essay about war world 1 shirts in public, Mr. Both are topical, and exploit assumed attitudes in the audience Gcse coursework english original writing that we know and are The lively art of writing thesis statements by the engineering problems of the Millennium Essay about war world 1 good to look at, perilous to walk on and the reputation of President Clinton. Gilgamesh and the bull of heaven essay Sredni Vashtar was a god he must be supposed to know.

GCSE Creative Writing Example: 40/40 Model Answer Explained In 8 Mins! - Narrator: Barbara Njau

Put this another way - try to think of people other than you who would want or need to read what you write, and of someone perhaps the reader, perhaps the publisher, perhaps some other group who would be ready to pay you for it. If the answer is no one , then perhaps you should start again. Most clients will publish general guidelines for different kinds of article. You can find examples by going to the BBC Web site, or contacting publishers of magazines and newspapers. Particular tasks will normally be given a brief or specification - how many words the text should run to usually this is set as a maximum, not a minimum.

In the case of assessed work for this course there is a minimum and a maximum for a complete portfolio - it must be between and words. This is not negotiable - in any other subject there might be some slight tolerance of a mild over-run. But not with a writing exam - because one of the measures of your work is your ability to edit and summarize in order to hit a target word-count. I assume that my draft will be more expansive or more long-winded than it strictly needs to be. Then I go to work and cut it down to size. This is a useful exercise, which normally yields a tighter, more focussed piece of writing.

It will also be helpful for examined work in editorial writing. If you have never had to do this, then it's time you started. Using word-processing software makes it far less messy, as you read through, deleting this and rewriting that. The best way to sort out your writing is to write real texts for real audiences - especially in forums where readers, clients and editors can respond to it. If you are studying the subject then you should at least be doing some of the things on the course at a higher level, or even for a living.

So how and where can you publish things? Here are a few suggestions:. The examiners have suggested a number of headings under which to categorize texts, according to the writer's purpose. This division is rather crude in practice, for several reasons. First, there are many texts which will fall into more than one of these categories. And many texts written to persuade, inform or advise will do so in ways which also entertain. A good example is TV and radio listings. These are written principally to inform to inform a potential audience of programme details.

But it is quite common for them to have mini-reviews and summaries. These may refer to a shared knowledge of characters in, say a soap opera. Or they may be written with a comic, ironic or parodic intent. Here is an example from the Guide , a weekly listings magazine which is an insert to the Guardian newspaper on Saturdays. The categories set by the examining board are therefore broad categories, to suggest ideas, rather than a straitjacket in which your writing must be restrained. But some of them give you more licence than do others - there are situations instructions to accompany a prescription medicine, say where it would be inappropriate to try also to entertain the reader.

The examiners give three examples for this category: a short story, a stand-up comedy routine and a radio script. There are many other possibilities - drama in various forms, comic or dramatic monologues, reviews, poetry, and song lyrics. It's very hard to make readers laugh, but it's well worth trying. You can attempt pastiches and parodies of other writers or styles, or character-driven comedy. Serious fiction is very difficult to achieve within your word-count, but it can be done. Perhaps the best of all writers of very short stories in English is Saki H.

Munro - you can find many of his stories online they are out of copyright. One of them is Sredni Vashtar , which appears below as an appendix - and weighs in at less than 1, words. You need a story worth telling and a structure - usually explained as a beginning, middle and end. But they need not be in that order, and you may be able to do without much middle. A really skilful writer can reduce a story to a few hundred words. Some of Jesus's parables are amazingly good models, especially both in the Gospel of St. For a more modern example look at the story below, by Somerset Maugham, which has fewer than words.

There are plenty of magazines that publish examples of short fiction - these can serve as realistic models you may be able to do as well or better. Some of these magazines invite submissions from readers. If you have the interest and ability you can use text with images in a number of ways - a traditional comic strip format, a graphic novel or a photo-story. The examiners give three examples for this category of writing: a piece of journalism, a moral fable or texts for an advertising campaign. Other possibilities would include texts for political speeches and broadcasts, a summing up statement for the conclusion of a trial, a speech for a debate, an opinion column or editorial for a newspaper or Web site, and a briefing pack for a lobbying organization.

This category is, above all, one where there is a well-established set of techniques rhetoric which is mostly thousands of years old, and which you can readily learn. These appear in a separate section of this guide, because they may be useful in other kinds of writing. It is very easy to find published examples of such texts - speeches, advertisements, persuasive journalism all abound online.

Use the links below to locate them. Bush's Inaugural Address. The examiners give three examples for this category of writing: an account of an event, an explanation of a process and an article about an area of special interest. This does not tell you much - you need to think of events, processes and subjects which would lead to something worth reading and therefore worth writing. It is a potential trap, as you mistakenly try to depict your home village as profoundly interesting - it probably isn't, though you can do a good job with fictions about village life as Joanna Trollope has shown.

The attraction of this category is that it is quite easy to give it structure - though an account of a process may force you to be more or less chronological. The hard part is to give it style , without losing sight of the main purpose - and this can be very tough. Travel writing, for example, is very difficult to do well - you need to be able to establish some common ground with the reader, and not just list places, prices, hotels and restaurants. This category includes most of the texts that are written - if it's not fiction, it probably belongs here.

Persuasion and instruction are narrower and more easily defined. Some ideas for this category, to be more specific than the examiners, might be:. One very obvious approach here is to stick to what you know - use a form with which you are familiar and a subject on which you are well-informed already, or which you have learned about in another taught course.

Do not try to learn about a new subject in order to write about it. You do not have the time. But there will be something about which you know more than the ordinary reader including examiners. In almost every case you will want to entertain as well as inform - the trick is to keep the desire to entertain subordinate to the need to inform. The extract below get this just about right - it is critical of its subject, and makes some jokes as it goes, but the writer always has his eye on the ball. The article from which this extract comes is a review, so it needs to refer to the detail of the film.

In this way it prepares readers to see the movie for themselves or, more likely, sets out a critique with which the reader is more or less invited to agree or disagree. Scott Tobias, extract from review for The Onion. The examiners give three examples for this category of writing: planning for an event or occasion, making better use of computer software and advice on managing money. This is not an obviously exciting category of writing, but its value is enormous - and it includes a vast number of texts. It also presents some great opportunities, as you can use what you have learned to adapt or improve source texts. You may be able to persuade a business to use your ideas, as they have an interest in communicating with their customers.

One very profitable approach is to take a text designed for one kind of reader or audience and use it to make texts for other readers or listeners. Here is a simple example - take a leaflet which gives advice on some aspect of medicine, hygiene or personal finance. Now produce versions for different audiences, such as speakers of English as a second language or young people. Another idea is to take a range of existing texts on some relevant subject law, health, money and combine them into a new text or document - a leaflet, a Web page, a feature for a magazine or a TV or radio broadcast for a given audience. You could use your own recent experience and understanding of youth culture, say, to produce something like How to cope with GCSEs for publication in a magazine like Sugar or Bliss.

You may think that many existing texts are difficult to follow, boring, patronizing or unclear - so there is a challenge to you to do better. These techniques can be used for various effects in your writing - in general they can embellish polish or decorate a text, but they can also make a text more persuasive or convincing. But you should beware of using them too much or inappropriately. The first is a simile , the second a metaphor. Both are topical, and exploit assumed attitudes in the audience - that we know and are amused by the engineering problems of the Millennium Bridge good to look at, perilous to walk on and the reputation of President Clinton.

Sports writers and broadcasters often use metaphor for comic effects, as in this example from Harry Pearson, in the Guardian newspaper of February 5th, In an article about why sportsmen but not women, with the exception of the US women's World-Cup winning soccer team like to take off their shirts in public, Mr. Pearson writes:. Students are evidently an acceptable group for stereotyping as lazy and inattentive to personal hygiene. They are a suitable source of comic metaphor, in ways that some other social groups are not.

George W. These examples are taken from written texts or those scripted for spoken delivery, but lively comparisons may occur in spontaneous speech. In , walking with a friend in London, I overheard two strangers discussing what I think was a problem with a car engine. One said:. I do not know and suspect that the speaker did not know what noise a ferret in a hailstorm might really make perhaps a clever ferret would take shelter from the storm , but the comparison vividly suggested the idea of a severe mechanical problem, and impressed itself unforgettably on my memory.

Careless speakers or writers will readily mix metaphors, but some authors will do this deliberately. Yeats's used this idea in a poem called Cuchulain's Fight With the Sea. In fiction, mixing metaphors in dialogue is a stock way to make the reader question the intelligence of a character. In rhetoric, a speaker may return to or develop a metaphor, to make an argument seem more compelling. In John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address from January , we find an extended metaphor of lighting a fire to give light to the world:. Another powerful technique is to refer to, or even quote, a powerful phrase which the audience may already know. There is some risk in this, as the author needs to be sure that enough of the audience will be aware of the allusion or reference, unless the quoted phrase works well even if its origin is not known.

In the lines quoted above, Kennedy seems to allude to the image, in St. John's Gospel , of Jesus as the light of the world. Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to explain the disaster in when the Challenger space shuttle exploded. This is how Peggy Noonan reworked Magee's lines:. For a different use of allusion we can consider this line from Chapter 40 of Margaret Atwood's novel, The Robber Bride :. Atwood has taken the image from a poem in Robert Browning's collection Men and Women. The poem is the dramatic monologue Andrea del Sarto :.

This is not a simple allusion. In Browning's poem the speaker, Andrea del Sarto a Renaissance artist, called "the faultless painter" is commenting on other painters. They cannot match his perfect technique, but Del Sarto commends them nonetheless for aspiring to what seems impossible - Browning uses the image in a serious sense of the artist's vocation. Margaret Atwood borrows the metaphor and applies it ironically to a philandering and unsympathetic character, Mitch.

Mitch has no aspiration to heaven, but rather a compulsive tendency to pursue women, which is his only sense of self. Without this, thinks his wife, Roz:. Three-part structures and lists are memorable and resonant in many kinds of text. Here are some examples:. A useful rhetorical device is to repeat a key idea - this may seem crude, but it can make things lodge in the minds of the audience. Synonymous parallelism Antithetic parallelism. Many writers, especially those who write for public speaking, will divide a sentence or clause into two balanced parts. This was the basic principle of poetry in much of the ancient world. There are almost limitless examples in the pages of the King James Bible , which was translated to be a version for public reading.

Sometimes the second half echoes or develops the first half - this is synonymous parallelism. Sometimes the two halves are opposed or contradictory, and this is antithetic parallelism or simply antithesis. We see this in some lines from George W. Bush's Inaugural Address , where he refers to US history as:. In this example the thought of "to protect but not possess", is carried further by "to defend but not to conquer".

In speaking these lines, there will be a pause after "possess". The first example comes from a speech of Winston Churchill, in which he challenges the Luftwaffe the German air force : " You do your worst - and we will do our best. A celebrated example comes from John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address from January quoted above :. And we can see antithesis in George W. Bush's images of America's "faith in freedom and democracy", first as a rock, then, by contrast, as a seed:. If you wish to make a statement, it may be a good idea to ask a question or series of questions to introduce it. This is a common technique in information leaflets, which often pose the question from the reader's viewpoint - "How can I protect my baby from common infections?

It can also be powerful in political rhetoric - "How would a Liberal Democrat government raise standards in education? For example, Welcome to the Labour Party , a booklet which gives information to new members, contains pages on which statements are introduced by questions, each set out as a section heading, such as:. Note, too, how a series of relatively modest questions leads to a very ambitious one! Asking "What is the future? Using the same initial consonant is a common ploy of poets and advertisers. It can be irritating if it's overdone, but makes lines quotable or memorable. In George W. Bush's inaugural speech we note " f aith in f reedom" and " r ock in a r aging sea". Winston Churchill, in his speech about the Luftwaffe addresses the Nazi leaders and refers to the Nazi party as the " g risly g ang who w ork your w icked w ill".

Contemporary examples are easy to spot. You can create some good effects by using similar words but with slight differences of form and meaning - Andy Bodle's review of Rancid Aluminium does this with "part arthouse, part shithouse". Here are a couple of examples. The first comes from Dorothy L. Sayers' Introduction to her translation of Dante's Purgatory :. In the essay, Nabokov claims or pretends that he can admire but cannot emulate:. In written and print documents you should use typography to show structure - this includes such things as headings in a consistent hierarchy , indentation, changes of type different size, face or case and white space.

Don't use these randomly - most word-processing software helps you do this. In a spoken text, there will be other ways to do this - such as the introduction of the final part of a speech, with the formula "and so The point of these methods is to allow the audience to see how the parts relate to the whole. We see a good model in all of Shakespeare's plays. There is a basic division into five acts - this corresponds mostly to the way the playwright has organized the story into sections. Within in each act, there may be many scenes or just one - these divisions correspond more to changes in time or place.

From the audience's viewpoint, this is shown by entrances and exits, and by simple formulae such as the characters' talking about where they are: "This is the Forest of Arden" or "Ill-met by moonlight" and so on. In your own writing, think about how you can show the structure of your work by using appropriate methods and signals. What have you written? When you write a commentary you should explain why you have made particular choices. You can give information about earlier versions of your work, indicating why you have changed the text at various points. You need to be very specific here, and describe things in terms of language forms, rather than vague general effects or intentions.

Don't be evasive - be direct and detailed. You may find it helpful to organize the commentary under these headings:. Let the examiners know what kind of text you set out to write - briefly introduce your work. For example:. Your purpose may be broadly something like informing or persuading. But you may have some more specific purpose, such as to present safety advice on a given product range to a given audience. You should note broadly any ways in which your purpose has affected your choice of form, lexis, grammar and style - but you will want to comment on these in more detail. For Teachers.

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