Components Of Qualitative Research Paper

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Components Of Qualitative Research Paper

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Initially, interviews were conducted; however 2 were inaudible and had to be discarded. Ninety-seven interviews were conducted by telephone, and 3 were conducted in person. Five paid transcribers transcribed 98 tapes. I reviewed all the transcriptions for their accuracy. Forty-one interviews had no transcribers' omissions. Of the remaining 57 interviews, 51 had minor omissions, defined as "the context of subjects' statements was minimally affected"; in addition, six tapes had at least one major recording error, defined as "a portion of subject's content was either inaudible or not recorded.

The interview with the first participant consisted of 28 questions and was 73 minutes long. Over the course of the first 10 interviews, questions and follow-up questions were added, changed, and deleted until the protocol was easily understood and included only open- ended questions that reliably instigated insightful responses. A final list of 42 questions and 16 follow-up questions was produced. Of the 42 questions, 12 were asked selectively such as questions on childhood experiences of being blind.

Although the final list of questions in the interview protocol was not finalized until the 10th interview, all of the questions about cane usage and mobility tools were included in the first draft of the interview and, therefore, were asked of each subject. This continuity allowed direct comparison of the 98 subjects on responses to these questions. The study was approved by the University Institutional Review Board. Results General versus specific statements about canes Ninety-eight participants were asked questions, such as "How many different types of mobility tools have you tried?

As each interview was reviewed, codes were generated, such as for folding cane and convenience. Codes were grouped into themes and variations that aided in the development of key hypotheses for example, folding canes are convenient. The results of these analyses are reported using both qualitative and quantitative measures. Ninety-eight participants reported experience with canes. Table 1 lists the novel statements that defined these four categories and their frequency across the participants. Given the opportunity to describe their canes, only 2 participants gave the brand names and at least one specific technical attribute for each of the six components of canes grip, shaft material, shaft design, coating, length, and tip.

Only 16 participants gave an example of six of the seven possible cane categories the six cane components plus the brand name. In contrast, every participant used nontechnical terms or descriptive terms, such as regular, mobility, and normal, to describe their canes. Two mentioned owning one or more canes, but noted none of the seven specific attributes about the canes, and 19 mentioned only one specific component of their canes.

S Of the two participants who gave detailed information about their canes, one, Mr. S, was a year-old small-business owner who was born sighted and became totally blind when his retinas detached, the first eye at age 10 and the second eye at age At the time of the interview, Mr. S owned 10 canes and indicated that he had used a variety of each type of cane component. At the time of the interview, his preferred cane was a inch, folding, graphite California Cane with golf grip and marshmallow tip. Specifically, Mr. S preferred this California Cane because "O-rings in between the joints act like a shock absorber," the marshmallow tip "doesn't grab as much … or catch as easily when you're tapping back and forth," the tape does not chip as easily and "still looks new," and the graphite is both flexible and durable.

His preferred cane length was "from 54 to 58 inches long. The golf club handle, … [I] don't really play golf, so I don't know. S explained why he had a variety of canes: Question: You said that you have lots of canes. But do you choose different ones for different reasons when you're going out? Answer: Yeah, when I used to work, I took a work one … that's the one that got beat up to heaven. If I go on vacation, no matter where I go, I always keep an extra one with me, just in case something happens--if it breaks or it gets left somewhere.

I took that one length off, which made it shorter, … but that was better than no cane. N The other participant who listed a specific attribute for all seven cane components was Mrs. N, a year-old self-described "stay-at-home mom" who was job hunting at the time of the interview. In her previous job, she hired family members to drive her to and from work. As she noted: I had my original mobility training when I was 16 and again [when I was] in my 20s.

I had two excellent instructors. I could get by without using [a cane] because I was traveling with other people and, you know, didn't really have the need. I didn't really feel the need until I was traveling alone. I wasn't really alone, my son was little, and I realized that I wasn't just responsible for me, I was responsible for him. N stated that "I [now] have probably the largest cane collection of anyone on earth. Among the reasons why she has so many canes in her collection is that she has canes of different colors.

As she explained: Question: How many canes do you own? Answer: I probably have about three or four straight canes now and half a dozen folding ones. Answer: I wear uniforms that require that you use black accessories like handbags and briefcases and things like that, … so to be cute, I got a black cane so that I can be in uniform with my cane. I've got another one that has wood grain and another [that] is camouflage. At Christmastime, I wrap a red ribbon around my straight cane, so it looks like a candy cane.

Question: You use the black one for the uniform, but you don't use that every day? Answer: No. I use a white California Cane every day. I have a white NFB telescoping cane. It has the advantage of being lighter, but I find that it's always folding up when I don't want it to. I think that the California Cane is probably my absolute favorite because it's lightweight and because when you extend it, it's as solid as a rock. B One participant who responded to questions about cane components, but did not mention any specific attributes, was a year-old woman, Ms. B continued to drive a car "short distances" into her 30s and then used mass transportation to travel to and from work.

She owned one cane at the time of the interview, which she described as "just a regular cane. As she put it: If I'm walking alone, I will carry my white cane when I go to the airport because I cannot read the monitors. I cannot see the sign when they say, "See the sign down there? If I don't have my cane and I ask for directions, I get something that I can't understand or else, "Just look at the sign, lady. F, a year-old man who works in information technology for a major corporation, also did not list any specific attributes when he was asked about his cane.

He lost his vision from two separate accidents by age A dog guide user, he was working from home at the time of the interview and had one cane. When Mr. F commuted to work, he would "catch rides with other people going to the office because there wasn't a bus or taxi between here and where I worked. Answer: It's an average white cane. Question: What kind of tip? Answer: I don't know. What are the choices? Question: Marshmallow, glide, rain shine, pencil. I think it's a glide tip. It's not one of those big ones that I've seen on some people's canes. Question: Is it metal? Answer: I don't know if it's metal. Maybe like fiberglass. Descriptions of the components of canes The participants referred to the characteristics described by Farmer and Smith conductivity, balance, weight, strength, durability, rigidity, resiliency, and visibility when they described the types of cane components.

Table 2 lists the impact that the types of cane components have on seven of these characteristics, from the most to the least impact. For example, it indicates that a rigid fiberglass cane with a plastic grip and a metal tip is considered the most conductive cane that is currently available. Using a different grip in this combination of components would reduce the conductivity of the cane.

Twenty-five participants said that they did not know the brand of cane that they used or had used, and 22 stated that they owned mobility, normal, regular, or average white canes. The participants who were specific about brands were often able to give multiple and exact locations where canes could be purchased. There was no sense of absolute loyalty to brands overall; instead, the participants either tried different brands in search of specific characteristics such as those that were lightweight or durable , bought canes from the same company because they were familiar with it, or could not remember the brand that they used.

Here are some representative comments in response to questions about cane brands and where to purchase canes: A year-old man, who became blind at age 7 and who owned one cane, said, "I don't know [which brand I use]. I get whatever they have. The one that I have from Anne Morris is my backup cane because I don't think it's well made. The carbon-fiber one came from a place called California Canes. So, I'm not particularly loyal to a given brand, I don't think.

I can't ever remember. The brand I had that folded up small, I got at the Dallas Lighthouse. I bought one and went to Disney World. I was using the cane all day, and the lightness was wonderful. The noise drove me crazy because it [had a] little, metal, round, flat tip. The tick, tick, tick drove me crazy, and the dang thing would not stay telescoped. Longer canes. The statement "I like longer canes" was made 18 times; 10 participants mentioned canes between "50 to 56 inches long" and "2 inches longer than recommended," and 8 subjects mentioned canes "63 inches long" and "chin high.

Shorter canes. Preferences for cane components Analyses of the participants' characteristics such as age, job, and affiliation and the statements about cane usage and cane components did not indicate that certain types of people preferred certain cane components. Instead, the results indicated that the terrain of a route, weather conditions, mobility demand, and purpose of an outing more often determined the participants' choice of canes. The results further suggested that although some participants were more capable than were others of describing specific features of canes using precise terminology, almost all had an opinion on some aspect of the canes that they used.

That is, consumers should own a range of canes, have knowledge of the variation among cane components, and be able to locate and buy new canes. The participants' statements referred to almost all the most desirable characteristics listed by Farmer and Smith However, the limited number of descriptions of the components of the canes that were used regularly compared to the total number of canes that were mentioned may be a cause for concern. This lack of information about the components of canes may create difficulty for persons who want to replace their canes with the exact makes and models.

Experienced travelers stated that the following questions should guide the selection of a cane: How will I be getting to and from the destination? What is the terrain getting to and at the destination? All of this information must be carefully crafted in to words. A word of advice is to save the writing of your abstract until the very end of your research proposal preparation. If you are asked to provide an abstract, you should include 5 to 7 key words that are of most relevance to your study. List these in order of relevance. The purpose of this section is to explain the context of your proposal and to describe, in detail, why it is important to undertake this research. Assume that the person or people who will read your research proposal know nothing or very little about the research problem.

While you do not need to include all knowledge you have learned about your topic in this section, it is important to ensure that you include the most relevant material that will help to explain the goals of your research. While there are no hard and fast rules, you should attempt to address some or all of the following key points:. This key component of the research proposal is the most time-consuming aspect in the preparation of your research proposal. As described in Chapter 5 , the literature review provides the background to your study and demonstrates the significance of the proposed research. Specifically, it is a review and synthesis of prior research that is related to the problem you are setting forth to investigate.

Essentially, your goal in the literature review is to place your research study within the larger whole of what has been studied in the past, while demonstrating to your reader that your work is original, innovative, and adds to the larger whole. As the literature review is information dense, it is essential that this section be intelligently structured to enable your reader to grasp the key arguments underpinning your study.

However, this can be easier to state and harder to do, simply due to the fact there is usually a plethora of related research to sift through. Consequently, a good strategy for writing the literature review is to break the literature into conceptual categories or themes, rather than attempting to describe various groups of literature you reviewed. Chapter 5 describes a variety of methods to help you organize the themes. It is important to note that a significant challenge related to undertaking a literature review is knowing when to stop. As such, it is important to know when you have uncovered the key conceptual categories underlying your research topic. Generally, when you start to see repetition in the conclusions or recommendations, you can have confidence that you have covered all of the significant conceptual categories in your literature review.

However, it is also important to acknowledge that researchers often find themselves returning to the literature as they collect and analyze their data. This may include looking to research outside your field. During the interviews, the researchers heard many participants discuss individual resilience factors and how they believed these individual factors helped make the community more resilient, overall. Sheppard and Williams had not discovered these individual factors in their original literature review on community and environmental resilience. However, when they returned to the literature to search for individual resilience factors, they discovered a small body of literature in the child and youth psychology field.

Consequently, Sheppard and Williams had to go back and add a new section to their literature review on individual resilience factors. Interestingly, their research appeared to be the first research to link individual resilience factors with community resilience factors. The objective of this section of the research proposal is to convince the reader that your overall research design and methods of analysis will enable you to solve the research problem you have identified and also enable you to accurately and effectively interpret the results of your research.

Consequently, it is critical that the research design and methods section is well-written, clear, and logically organized. This demonstrates to your reader that you know what you are going to do and how you are going to do it. Overall, you want to leave your reader feeling confident that you have what it takes to get this research study completed in a timely fashion. Essentially, this section of the research proposal should be clearly tied to the specific objectives of your study; however, it is also important to draw upon and include examples from the literature review that relate to your design and intended methods.

In other words, you must clearly demonstrate how your study utilizes and builds upon past studies, as it relates to the research design and intended methods. For example, what methods have been used by other researchers in similar studies? While it is important to consider the methods that other researchers have employed, it is equally, if not more, important to consider what methods have not been but could be employed. Remember, the methods section is not simply a list of tasks to be undertaken. It is also an argument as to why and how the tasks you have outlined will help you investigate the research problem and answer your research question s.

Specify the methodological approaches you intend to employ to obtain information and the techniques you will use to analyze the data. Specify the research operations you will undertake and the way you will interpret the results of those operations in relation to the research problem. Go beyond stating what you hope to achieve through the methods you have chosen. State how you will actually implement the methods i. Anticipate and acknowledge any potential barriers you may encounter when undertaking your research, and describe how you will address these barriers.

Explain where you believe you will find challenges related to data collection, including access to participants and information. The purpose of this section is to argue how you anticipate that your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in the area of your study.

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